A novel HPLC-based method employing molar absorption coefficient ratios to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA) was developed for the determination of quassin and neoquassin in Jamaica quassia extract, which is used as a food additive in Japan. Based on comparisons of quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectra and HPLC chromatograms of an artificial mixture of quassin, neoquassin, and 4HBA, the molar absorption coefficient ratios of quassin and neoquassin to 4HBA were determined as 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Quassin and neoquassin were quantified in food additives by qNMR and HPLC based on molar absorption coefficient ratios using 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene-d4 and 4HBA as internal standards, respectively. The differences in quantitation values between qNMR and HPLC analyses were below 1.2%. Our proposed novel HPLC-based quantitation method employing the molar absorption coefficient ratios is a reliable tool for determining levels of quassin and neoquassin in food additives and processed foods.
The nematode Anisakis simplex is a representative parasite infecting marine animals. When third stage larvae of A. simplex infecting fish and squids are ingested by humans, individuals previously sensitized by this parasite may experience IgE-mediated allergic reactions. So far, as many as 13 kinds of proteins (Ani s 1–13) have been identified as A. simplex allergens but several more unknown allergens are suggested to exist. In this study, therefore, chemiluminescent immunoscreening of an expression cDNA library constructed from the third stage larvae was conducted to identify a new allergen. As a result, an IgE-positive clone coding for a 23.5 kDa protein (named Ani s 14) composed of 217 amino acid residues was isolated. The regions 4–147 and 34–123 of Ani s 14 share 31% identity with the region 796–940 of Ani s 7 and 32% identity with the region 2–91 of Ani s 12, respectively. Recombinant Ani s 14 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and shown to be IgE reactive to 14 (54%) of 26 sera from Anisakis-allergic patients. In conclusion, Ani s 14 is a new major allergen of A. simplex that is specific to Anisakis-allergic patients.
An HPLC method for determination of sodium saccharin and acesulfame potassium was newly developed, employing coagulant pretreatment to remove particles dispersed in the sample extract. The method showed recovery of 96–101% for both analytes with a repeatability of less than 1% and a reproducibility of less than 2%. The limit of quantification for sodium saccharin was 0.025 g/kg and that for acesulfame potassium was 0.025 g/kg. Only about 20 min was required for preparation of the test solution, whereas the dialysis method takes much longer.
A method for the determination of ipfencarbazone in agricultural products, livestock products and seafood by LC-MS/MS was developed. Agricultural samples were extracted with acetone. An aliquot of crude extract was partitioned with n-hexane and sat. sodium chloride solution. Clean-up was performed using GC/PSA and C18 cartridges. In the case of livestock products and seafood, samples were extracted with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane, and the organic layer was collected. After acetonitrile-hexane partitioning, the extract was cleaned up using PAS and C18 cartridges. The gradient LC separation was performed on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water containing acetic acid as a mobile phase, and MS with positive ion electrospray ionization was used for detection. The average recoveries (n=5) of ipfencarbazone from 16 kinds of agricultural products, livestock products and seafood spiked at the MRLs or at the uniform limits (0.01 ppm) were 73–101%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.3–5.1%. The limit of quantitation of the developed method was 0.01 mg/kg for ipfencarbazone.
The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.
“Licorice oil extract” (LOE) (antioxidant agent) is described in the notice of Japanese food additive regulations as a material obtained from the roots and/or rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. inflata or G. glabra. In this study, we aimed to identify the original Glycyrrhiza species of eight food additive products using LC/MS. Glabridin, a characteristic compound in G. glabra, was specifically detected in seven products, and licochalcone A, a characteristic compound in G. inflata, was detected in one product. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) (a kind of multivariate analysis) using the data of LC/MS or 1H-NMR analysis was performed. The data of thirty-one samples, including LOE products used as food additives, ethanol extracts of various Glycyrrhiza species and commercially available Glycyrrhiza species-derived products were assessed. Based on the PCA results, the majority of LOE products was confirmed to be derived from G. glabra. This study suggests that PCA using 1H-NMR analysis data is a simple and useful method to identify the plant species of origin of natural food additive products.
A rapid and simple determination method of seven fungicides, thiabendazole (TBZ), pyrimethanil (PYR), o-phenylphenol (OPP), fludioxonil (FLD), azoxystrobin (AZX), imazalil (IMZ) and diphenyl (DP) in citrus fruits by LC-MS and HPLC-FL was developed. The seven fungicides were extracted with acetonitrile from citrus fruits and cleaned up with Z-Sep/C18 cartridges. The LC separation was performed on a phenyl-hexyl column with methanol–acetonitrile–10 mmol/L ammonium formate (10 : 35 : 55) as a mobile phase. The recoveries from citrus fruits fortified with the compounds at the MRLs and at 0.1 μg/g ranged from 85.4 to 106.3% and from 75.8 to 99.7%, respectively. The quantitation limits (S/N=10) were 0.03–0.07 μg/g.