Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
Online ISSN : 1882-1006
Print ISSN : 0015-6426
ISSN-L : 0015-6426
Volume 22 , Issue 5
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Shoko MIYAUCHI, Kyoji TAKAHATA, Mieko KANAI, Hiroya TANABE
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 339-344_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Qualitative analysis of three groups of antibiotics, tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides, was carried out in acid buffer solution at the 0.5ppm level, except for hygromycin B (10ppm) and destomycin A (2ppm), as a preliminary to residue analysis studies on animal tissues.
    Macrolides and tetracyclines were separated from aminoglycosides by extraction with chloroform at pH 8.50 and then with ethyl acetate at pH 5.50.
    After extraction, aminoglycosides in buffer solution were freed from residual tetracyclines by treatment with Amberlite XAD-2 at pH 4.00.
    Each fraction was subjected to microbioautography for the identification of antibiotics.
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  • Akio OHE, Akira SUGITANI, Fujizo YAMADA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 345-350_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Because the level of cadmium (Cd) in Lentinus edodes (L. edodes) was the highest among all vegetable foods tested, the accumulation and chemical form of Cd in L. edodes was investigated.
    1. The mean level of Cd in L. edodes was 0.17ppm (wet basis) and was about six times as high as that in vegetable samples (37 species) tested.
    2. Among 6 kinds of metals present in woods used for the culture of L. edodes, Cd and zinc (Zn) were concentrated about six and three times in L. edodes cultured on the woods, respectively, whereas the concentration factors of other metals were less than 0.7. L. edodes thus appears to accumulate Cd specifically.
    3. The distribution of Cd in subcellular components of L. edodes was 45% in the soluble fraction, 26% in the nuclei, 3% in the mitochondria and 3% in microsomes. Cd recovery in this experiment was about 80%.
    4. Cd in the supernatant obtained by centrifugation of L. edodes homogenate at 16, 000×g for 30 minutes was eluted in Fraction I (Fr-I molecular weight (MW)>ca. 30, 000) and Fraction II (Fr-II MW<ca. 3, 000). The ratio of Cd in Fr-I to Fr-II was approximately 2:1.
    5. The Cd-binding component in Fr-II had a molecular weight of about 700, gave a positive ninhydrin reaction and had an absorbance maximum at 260nm (pH 8.0). These results suggest that the Cd-binding component of Fr-II is a peptide.
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  • Studies on Synergistic Toxicity of Food Additives. I
    Shigeru TANIGUCHI, Akio YAMADA, Shigeru MORITA, Yasuhisa MIZUNOYA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 351-365_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Toxicological potentiation of two food additives was investigated in male and female Wistar rats given sodium sulfite (SS) and sodium propionate (SP) in the diet for 3 months. The concentrations of the samples in the diet were 0 (control), SS 1, 2 and 4%, SP 1.25, 2.5 and 5%, SS 2%+SP 2.5%, SS 2%+SP 5% and SS 4%+SP 2.5%. The body weight gain, the values in hematological and serum biochemical examinations, the organ weights and the pathological findings indicated that there was no potentiation of toxicity in the combination of SS and SP.
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  • Studies on Synergistic Toxicity of Food Additives. II
    Shigeru TANIGUCHI, Akio YAMADA, Shigeru MORITA, Sumiko OHGAKI, Yasuhis ...
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 366-380_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Toxicological potentiation of two food additives was investigated in male and female Wistar rats given sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-Na) and dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) in the diet for 6 months. The concentrations of the samples in the diet were 0 (control and pair feeding control), DHA-Na 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5%, BHT 0.1, 0.3 and 1%, DHA-Na 0.05%+BHT 0.1%, DHA-Na 0.5%+BHT 0.1% and DHA-Na 0.05%+BHT 1%. Under the present experimental conditions, no marked potentiation of toxicity was observed in the combination of DHA-Na and BHT.
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  • Shigehiko FUKUSHIMA, Hideaki MIYATA, Takashi KASHIMOTO
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 381-385_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to clarify the source of the PCQ residues in normal human bodies, a microdetermination method for PCQ was developed, and various fish were analyzed for the compound in view of their position in the food chain.
    The sample was saponified, extracted with n-hexane, washed and concentrated. The concentrated extract was chromatographed on a Florisil column to separate PCQ from PCB. PCB was analyzed according to the conventional method by ECD-GC. PCQ was then perchlorinated with antimony pentachloride in order to permit the easy identification and quantitation of PCQ residues with high sensitivity, followed by the elimination of impurities on an alumina column. The identity of perchlorinated, PCQ was confirmed by GC-MS, and it was quantitated by comparing the sum of gas chromatographic peak areas with those of the standard by ECD-GC.
    It was found for the first time that the most of the fish tested were contaminated with PCQ. The PCQ levels were n. d.-0.299 (mean±S. D., 0.086±0.088) ppb in fish and 0.020-3.125 (0.759±1.150) ppb in shellfish. The ratio of PCQ/PCB was 1.8×10-3 in fish and 2.6×10-1 in shellfish on average. The ratios were very high in comparison with that of a Japanese PCB preparation (Kanechlor-400).
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  • Kuni KATO, Yukio OSADA, Tadayoshi NAKAOKA, Haruo IKEDA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 386-390_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The volatile components in 22 samples of commercial polypropylene (PP) containers were identified and determined by gas chromatography, with due consideration of solvent residues.
    The volatile compounds from PP resins could be classified largely into two groups.
    One was saturated C6 hydrocarbons (detected in 6 samples), and the other was saturated C7 hydrocarbons (detected in 16 samples).
    In the group of C6 compounds, n-hexane was the main component, whereas the C7 compounds were a mixture of 2-methylhexane, 3-methylhexane, n-heptane and methyl-cyclohexane.
    The amounts of C6 and C7 hydrocarbons in PP resins analyzed after extraction into toluene were as follows: C6 hydrocarbons 15-23ppm; C7 hydrocarbons 34-343ppm.
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  • Studies on Mycotoxins in Food. XV
    Mitsuo NAKAZATO, Masamitsu KANMURI, Kumiko NAKAZAWA, Takanari ARIGA, K ...
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 391-396_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was found that the fluorescence intensity of citrinin increases on treatment with aluminium chloride and that the reaction products dissolve readily in polar solvents. This reaction was applied to the fluorometric determination of citrinin in cereals.
    The method was as follows. The citrinin was extracted from ground cereal with ethyl acetate and transferred into an sodium bicarbonate solution layer. The aqueous layer was acidified with 20% hydrochloric acid and extracted with chloroform. Aluminium chloride in methanol was added to the chloroform extract. The mixture was shaken vigorously for 3 minutes, then water was added and the whole was shaken for 5 minutes. The methanol-water layer was removed and allowed to stand for 10 minutes. The fluorescence intensity of the methanol-water layer was measured with a fluorescence spectrophotometer (λex, 380nm; λem, 465nm).
    The recoveries of citrinin added to various cereals were in the range of 76-103%, and the detection limit was 0.05μg/g.
    The present method was found to be satisfactory for the determination of citrinin in cereals.
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  • Kazuo YASUDA, Motohiro NISHIJIMA, Kazuo SAITO, Hisashi KAMIMURA, Akihi ...
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 397-403_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Datura stramonium L., D. alba Nees, D. inermis Jacq., D. metel L., and D. tatula L. in a particular area were sampled at various vegetation periods, and scopolamine and hyoscyamine in their organs (leaves, branches, stems, roots, seeds, fruits, flowers and leaf stalks) were extracted with ether. The contents of these extracts were identified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and determined by dual-wavelength TLC densitometry.
    The behavior of alkaloids in roots and leaves under cooking, usually by boiling or frying, was investigated.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    1) It was found that scopolamine contents in D. alba Nees and D. metel L., and hyoscyamine contents in D. stramonium L., D. inermis Jacq. and D. tatula L. tended to be high.
    2) The contents of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in leaves, branches and seeds tended to be higher than those in the other organs.
    The highest content of hyoscyamine in leaves of D. tatula L. was 2.3% in the followering period.
    3) In general, alkaloid contents increased until the flowering period, decreased toward the fruit bearing stage, then increased again during fruit bearing, and decreased in the resting period.
    4) When the roots and leaves were boiled in water, a large percentage of the alkaloids contained in the samples dissolved, but about 30-40% of them in the roots and about 5% in the leaves remained.
    After frying the roots, about 80-90% of the alkaloids in them remained.
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  • Takashi YAMADA, Miyako YAMAMOTO, Akio TANIMURA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 404-408_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The reaction of nitrite with pyroglutamic acid, an amide compound which is sometimes present in foods, was studied. The initial rate of nitrosation of pyroglutamic acid was very slow and the rate constant at pH 2.5 and 37°C was 1.23×10-3M-1min-1. This value is 1.7% of that of nitrosation of hydantoic acid and 0.03% of that of nitrosomethylurea formation. The effects of thiocyanate, citrate, and tartrate on the rate of nitrosation of pyroglutamic acid were studied.
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  • Noriko MORI, Masako SAKANOUE, Masaya TAKEUCHI, Kotaro SHIMPO, Tsuneyos ...
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 409-414_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stevioside, a sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana bertoni (Compositae), was mixed with the diet at concentrations of 0.15%, 0.75% and 3%. Male rats were given the stevioside diet for 60 days before and during mating. Female rats were given the stevioside diet for 14 days before mating and for 7 days during gestation. All pregnant females were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were examined for abnormalities.
    Males and females fed with 3% stevioside showed a slight retardation of body weight increase in the early period of administration. No abnormal signs were seen in mating performance or fertility in either group. No external, internal or skeletal anomalies attributable to stevioside were observed in the fetuses.
    It was concluded that dietary administration of stevioside to males and females before mating and during the early period of gestation had no adverse effect on fertility or on the development of fetuses.
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  • A New Type of Flat Sour Spoilage. IV
    Akihiko NAKAYAMA, Rieko SHINYA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 415-420_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ultraviolet (UV) resistance of the spores of six strains causing O. A. flat sour spoilage was estimated, and the effects of UV irradiation on the heat resistance of the spores were also studied.
    The UV doses required to reduce the number of survivors to one-tenth of the original number ranged from 1300 to 2600ergs/mm2, which is not especially high, in contrast to the high heat resistance. The effects of UV irradiation on the heat resistance of the spores tested differed among the different strains. However, in the range of the UV doses used, UV irradiation decreased the heat resistance at least to one-half.
    Therefore, prior UV irradiation of dissolved sugar, which is most strongly suspected as a source of the spores, can be employed as a countermeasure to prevent O. A. flat sour spoilage of canned drinks kept hot in vending machines.
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  • A New Type of Flat Sour Spoilage. V
    Akihiko NAKAYAMA, Rieko SHINYA
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 421-422_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A sugar solution inoculated with the spores causing O. A. flat sour spoilage was sterilized by the use of a commercial ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer.
    The concentration of the spores in the sugar solution (45%) was decreased to 10-7 of the original level by treatment of the sugar solution in a continuous UV sterilizer at a flow rate of 500L/hr, which corresponds to a UV dose of 104ergs/mm2. The UV dose required to reduce the number of survivors to one-tenth of the original population was 1500ergs/mm2 in the present practical experiment using a commercial UV sterilizer, and this is in reasonably good agreement with the result obtained in the laboratory.
    This work confirms that prior UV irradiation of sugar solutions is an effective countermeasure to prevent O. A. flat sour spoilage of canned drinks kept hot in vending machines.
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  • Taizo TSUDA, Hiroshi NAKANISHI
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 425-431_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A dialysis method was applied to the determination of D-sorbitol in various commercial foods and toothpastes. Extraction was carried out by dialysis against methanol with cellulose tubing. An aliquot of the dialyzate was evaporated to dryness, and the trimethylsilyl derivative of D-sorbitol was formed. The TMS-sorbitol was injected into a gas-liquid chromatograph and measured by means of a flame ionization detector. The recovery of D-sorbitol was in the range of 89%-109%, and the standard deviation was 6.9% (n=16). Contents of D-sorbitol in various commercial products were investigated. For example, sugarless chewing gums contained 29%-52% D-sorbitol. This method is simple and accurate.
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  • Masahiro IWAIDA, Yoshio ITO, Masatake TOYODA, Akiko MASAKI
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 432-435_1
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Gum guaiac solution is easily oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of peroxidase to develop a blue color that has its absorbance maximum at 610nm. A linear calibration curve was obtained up to an hydrogen peroxide content of 0.25-2.0μg. We attempted to apply this phenomenon to the rapid estimation of hydrogen peroxide in milk. When milk was dialyzed against 10 volumes of 0.05% potassium bromate, it was possible to detect not less than 0.25ppm of hydrogen peroxide in the milk, the recovery at the 1ppm spikage level being 64.2%. Though we also attempted to apply the guaiacol test to the detection of hydrogen peroxide in milk, this test was relatively ineffective compared with the guaiac test. The established method was applied to the inspection of residual hydrogen peroxide in commercial milks sold in the Osaka area in polyethylene-coated paper cartons. All the samples were confirmed to be free from hydrogen peroxide.
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  • Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foods. IX
    Yoshiko SHIRAISHI, Tsuyako SHIROTORI
    1981 Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 436-440
    Published: October 05, 1981
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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