Attempts were made to isolate the causative substance of poisoning due to ingestion of carp, Cyprinus carpio. Patients develop complex symptoms including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis and convulsions of limbs, etc. The bile from carp was extracted with 80% methanol under reflux. The extract was defatted with chloroform, ultrafiltered, and subjected to an Amberlite XAD-2 treatment. The unbound fraction was subjected to silica gel 60 and SEP-PAK C18 cartridge chromatographies. The obtained toxin was further purified by high performance liquid chromatography on a D-ODS-5 column. The purified toxin was homogeneous in thin-layer chromatography, and showed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6mg/20g mouse. The molecular weight of this toxin was determined to be 532 by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Based on the results of TLC and IR spectrometry, this toxin was supposed to be a steroid-related substance, having a sulfate ester group in the molecule.
The effects of food restriction on metabolism and accumulation of pentachlorobenzene (PECB), and on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were investigated in rats. After oral administration of PECB (15mg) rats were fed on restricted diets (0%, 25% or 50% of ad libitum amount) for 8 days. Fat tissue weight was significantly decreased by restricted feeding. The concentrations of PECB and pentachlorophenol, a major metabolite of PECB, in blood of the restricted feeding groups were higher at day 2 and day 4 than those of the ad libitum group. At the end of the experiment, the contents of PECB in blood, liver, kidney, brain and fat tissue of the restricted feeding groups were significantly lower than those of the ad libitum group. The increase of PECB metabolism in the restricted feeding groups could not be explained only by changes of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. These results suggested that the restricted feeding decreased the weight of fat tissue, the major accumulation site of PECB, so the PECB concentration available to hepatic drugmetabolizing enzymes increased and the amount of PECB metabolite formed was increased.
The hyaluronidase inhibitory effects of teas differing in degree of fermentation were investigated. All of the tea extracts tested showed significant inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase. We have previously reported that these extracts inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by antigen as well as by compound 48/80. In the present study, it was found that these inhibitory effects appeared to be well Correlated. It SeemS that tea extracts may possess anti-allergic activity. Futhermore, the results suggested that phenolic compounds such as tannins in the extracts were responsible for the inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase. However, considering that the extracts showed almost the same activity independently of the degree of fermentation of the teas, and some activity still existed after the removal of phenolic compounds, it was thought that other active components in addition to tannins were present.
Dietary intakes of chlordane (CHL) were investigated in order to clarify the degree of contribution of the routes of human exposure. Seventy-five daily diet samples from 25 housewives living in the Kinki area and 25 samples from 25 housewives living in Ebetsu City, Hokkaido, were analyzed for CHL complex (6 compounds) and 4 other organochlorine compounds. Mean intake of CHL in the Kinki area, approximately 2μg/day, was higher than those of DDT, DDE and HCB. Intakes of all of the CHL complex in the Kinki area were significantly higher than those in Ebetsu, though other organochlorines were in the same ranges. Close and statistically significant relationships between dietary intakes of chemicals and fishes were observed for all of the pollutants analyzed in non-CHL-treated homes, confirming the results reported by others. In the CHL-treated homes, however, intake of CHL complex were not related to the amount of fish intake even though intakes of DDT, DDE and HCB were, again, related to that of fishes. The significance of the differences of chemical intakes between CHL-treated and non-treated homes was examined by using student's t test. No significant change was observed for DDT, DDE, HCB or HCE between these 2 groups. Intakes of CHL complex for treated homes were, however, remarkably higher than those of non-treated homes. Moreover, the chromatographic patterns of CHL complex in the diet from treated homes were very specific, indicating that relatively volatile components in technical CHL might be absorbed by certain foodstuffs. These results show that human exposure to CHL in nontreated homes depends mainly on the intakes of fishes, similar to the exposure to PCB and DDT. On the other hand, in a CHL-treated homes, participation of some other route, which could be a major source of human exposure, was indicated.
Amaranth (FD & Red C No. 2) and Ponceau 3R stimulate in vitro RNA synthesis by causing the dissociation of chromatin in isolated rat-liver nuclei. To elucidate the mechanism of chromatin dissociation, the effect of amaranth on chromosomal proteins was examined using heterochromatin prepared from isolated rat-liver nuclei. The dissociation of amaranth-or Ponceau 3R-treated heterochromatin was confirmed by both solubility measurement and electron microscopy. Amaranth released nonspecific non-histone proteins and increase in its concentration resulted in the release of non-histone proteins with molecular weights of 17.5, 25, and 31 kilodaltons in addition to the nonspecific non-histone proteins. These non-histone proteins were presumed to be high mobility group (HMG) proteins from their behavior on SDS-electrophoresis. On the other hand, no release of histone was observed in these experiments.
The effects of perilla oil and safflower oil on embryonic and fetal development were examined in ICR mice. Female mice were fed either a perilla oil diet or a safflower oil diet from 4 weeks of age to 10 weeks of age and were mated with male mice fed a control diet at 10 weeks of age. The results can be summarized as follows. 1) No significant differences from the control were found in the body weight gains of female mice fed either the perilla oil diet or a safflower oil diet from 4 to 10 weeks of age. 2) There was no significant difference in the delivery intervals, durations of pregnancy, still birth rates, litter sizes or body weights of newborns of the two dietary groups. 3) No retardation of ossification and no external and skeletal malformations were observed in the perilla oil diet group. Based on these results together with those obtained with rats, we conclude that perilla oil is a safe and useful vegetable oil.
The antimicrobial and preservative effects of sodium chlorite on fish and vegetable were compared with those of sodium hypochlorite. Raw whole sardine, sliced mackerel or shredded cabbage were soaked in solutions of sodium chlorite or sodium hypochlorite at 5°C for 1 hour, and then stored for 1 or 2 weeks at 5°C. Then bacterial counts for all samples and K values of fish were determined. Browning of cabbage was observed continuously. The antimicrobial effect of sodium chlorite was as strong as that of sodium hypochlorite for fish. The two compounds were not effective to keep fish fresh (checked by K value), but sodium chlorite suppressed the growth of bacteria on vegetable better than sodium hypochlorite did, and it also protected cabbage from browning very effectively.
In order examine how much AN is eluted from containers having different residual AN (RAN) concentrations in the material thereof into foods containing alcohol, and in order to examine the influences of different container volumes on the elution, AN eluted from two kinds of PAN-containers (2, 400ml and 1, 000ml) was investigated at 40°C for 10 to 90 days, using 8% alcohol. The eluted AN was analyzed with a gas chromatograph having a nitrogen and phosphorus detector. The results of the analysis showed that the AN eluted from the PAN-container of 2, 400ml having a RAN concentration of 1.5μg/g in the material was below the lower limit of detection under the severe storage conditions of 40°C and 90 days. The AN eluted from the PAN-container of 1, 000ml having a RAN concentration of 0.3μg/g in the material was also below the lower limit of detection under same storage conditions. The lower limit of detection of eluted AN was 0.005μg/ml.