Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
Online ISSN : 1882-1006
Print ISSN : 0015-6426
ISSN-L : 0015-6426
Volume 32 , Issue 5
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Tadashi SHIBATA, Sumiko TUSJI, Yoshio ITO, Shun-Ichi UDAGAWA, Meiko SU ...
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 389-401_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, dehydroacetate and sorbate are authorized as additives to be used as antimicrobial agents for cheese.
    On the other hand, application of natamycin for the surface treatment of cheese is allowed in approximately 30 countries. In this investigation, we compared the effectiveness of natamycin and sorbate by treating Gouda-type cheese, specially manufactured for this purpose, with different concentrations of antimicrobials and with different methods of application. The results may be summarized as follows.
    1. Natamycin remains on the surface of the cheese not penetrating inside, while sorbate was shown to penetrate inwards, diffusing throughout the cheese.
    2. Natamycin showed low effectiveness at the concentration of 5μg/kg (when applied by the coating method), amounting to one-hundredth of that of sorbate.
    3. So far as application mode was concerned, coating was more effective than the dipping method, showing the same effect on cheese at about one-fifth concentration compared with the dipping method.
    4. When natamycin was applied by the coating method, it could be completely removed by scraping off 5mm of the exterior.
    5. The effectiveness of natamycin continued for as long as 8 weeks after application both by the coating and dipping methods, showing a selective effect on molds compared with sorbate. If cheese was not treated with either of the antimicrobials, molding began as early as at two weeks after manufacturing, becoming an obstacle to further ripening and storage of the cheese.
    6. Most of the molds on the cheese were identified as strains belonging to genus Penicillium, P. viridicatum and P. roquefortii being the most frequently isolated strains.
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  • Hygienic Studies on Health Food (III)
    Keiko TADANO, Kazuo YASUDA, Hirofumi USHIYAMA, Taichiro NISHIMA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 402-407_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seventeen oyster extract tablets, so-called health food, on the market were investigated for paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) by the standard mouse bioassay method. Eleven samples contained toxicity in the range of 3.9-12.5 MU/g. However, in samples that had a positive mouse bioassay result, PSP was not identified by thin-layer chromatography and fluorescence analysis and was also not detected by high performance liquid chromatography.
    It was found that the mouse toxicity was correlated with the concentration of calcium in samples. The toxicity may be caused by the conversion of CaCO3 in tablets into CaCl2 by HCl used for the extraction of PSP. It was found that sulfuric acid, citric acid or phosphoric acid could be employed to extract PSP in place of HCl.
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  • Hajimu ISHIWATA, Takiko SUGITA, Michio KOZAKI, Akio MAEKAWA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 408-413_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of melamine on the growth of microorganisms were examined. The growth of eight out of nine strains tested was delayed by 10mM melamine during 24hr cultivation. A strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRIC 1685, did not recover its growth even during 48hr cultivation (52.2±1.1% of the control). Melamine did not induce mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA strains 100, 98, 97 and 102 with or without S-9 mix. The consumption of dissolved oxygen by Sacch. cerevisiae NRIC 1685 was not affected by 10mM melamine. The release of sodium and potassium ions from the yeast was accelerated in the presence of 10mM melamine, but that of magnesium and UV-absorbing cell components was not. The uptake of ammonia-nitrogen into the yeast was inhibited by 2.5mM melamine or more.
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  • Kyoko SATO, Tamio MAITANI, Kunitoshi YOSHIHIRA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 414-419_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The uptake of arsenic by the hairy roots of Rubia tinctorum cultured in arsenic-containing medium was studied to estimate the transfer of arsenic to natural dyes produced by means of a tissue-culture technique. When arsenic was added as arsenite in the medium, the growth of the hairy roots was inhibited more strongly than in the case of arsenate. More than 90% of the arsenic added as arsenite to the medium was taken up by the hairy roots after 1 week of incubation. Less than 50% of the arsenic added as arsenate to the medium was taken up by hairy roots after 1 week and, at the highest concentration, about 80% was taken up at 2 weeks. Thus, the uptake of arsenite was faster than that of arsenate. The chemical species of arsenic in the hairy roots were studied by using an HPLC-ICP method. Even arsenic incorporated into the hairy roots from arsenate-containing medium was detected as arsenite. Most arsenic in the hairy roots was not extracted (less than 4% of the total) by methanol, which is a good solvent for the extraction of the anthraquinone pigments produced by R. tinctorum.
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  • Sachie IKEGAMI, Fumie TSUCHIHASHI, Keizo UMEGAKI, Tomio ICHIKAWA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 420-426_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary lipid on the accumulation of pentachlorobenzene (PECB). Male Sprague Dawley rats (4-week-old) were fed diets of 10% or 20% soybean oil, 10% lard, 10% olive oil or 10% fish oil either containing or not containing 50mg% PECB for 2 weeks.
    Significant reductions of accumulated PECB in perirenal and epididymal fats were observed in rats fed the fish oil diet, while the content in the liver was comparable with those in rats fed other lipid diets. Although fecal excretion of PECB was significantly higher in rats fed the olive oil diet than those in rats fed other diets, the amount was only 6.3% of the estimated daily dose. Induction of cytochrome P-450 by PECB in hepatic microsomes was not observed only in rats fed fish oil diet. On the other hand, triglyceride in the liver and the weight of adipose tissues decreased in rats fed the fish oil diet.
    The above results suggest that feeding of fish oil may reduce accumulation of fat-soluble xenobiotics in adipose tissues and the mechanism may be related to the metabolism of triglyceride rather than an induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme(s).
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  • Yukari HASEGAWA, Yasuhide TONOGAI, Yumiko NAKAMURA, Yoshio ITO
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 427-433_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The residue levels of post-harvest applied pesticides in cherries during storage or processing were investigated. After application of captan, iprodione, and pyrethrin, cherries were stored for 8 weeks or canned with syrup, and the levels of the pesticides were determined after each processing step. No captan, 59.4% of iprodione, and 38.1-136.4% of pyrethrin components were detected in cherries after 8 weeks' storage at 5°C. No captan, 39.5% of iprodione, and 51.1-150.2% of pyrethrin components were detected after canning with syrup.
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  • Masa KAKIUCHI, Reiko KAWAMOTO, Sumiko TSUJI, Tadashi SHIBATA, Yoshio I ...
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 434-438_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The loss-on-drying method is adopted in the official methods for standards of food coal-tar dyes. However, food coal-tar dyes are so hygroscopic that the results obtained by the official method are dependent on the level of humidity in the desiccator after drying. The official method requires 6 hours for drying.
    In the Karl-Fischer method, it is not necessary to dry the sample and total water content in food coal-tar dyes can be measured directly. Thus, the sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility of the official method and the Karl-Fischer method were compared.
    The loss-on-drying value obtained by the official method was influenced by the humidity in the desiccator on cooling the dyes to room temperature, and the reproducibility of this method was not good. On the other hand, the Karl-Fischer method was simple, rapid, and accurate, and is concluded to be superior for the determination of water content in food coal-tar dyes.
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  • Takiko SUGITA, Hajimu ISHIWATA, Akio MAEKAWA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 439-443_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Intestinal distribution and absorption of melamine and the disposition of this compound in blood and urine were examined in Wistar male rats. When rats were fed a diet containing 1% melamine for one week, the concentration of melamine in the stomach contents was 3, 040±772ppm. The concentration of melamine was highest in the upper part of the small intestine, 487±101ppm, and it decreased gradually along the intestines, being 158±20.0ppm in the lowest part. But there was more melamine in the cecum and the large intestine: 193±38.8ppm and 283±20.3ppm, respectively. Further, 22.6±6.93ppm and 5, 050±2, 010ppm of melamine appeared in the blood and urine, respectively. Melamine was not absorbed in the stomach but was absorbed monoexponentially in the small intestine. Its half life in the ligated upper part of the small intestine was 37.9min. The doubling time of melamine was 18.6min in the blood and 2.9min in urine. Melamine injected into a femoral vein was excreted monoexponentially into urine from blood. The excretion was suppressed between 15 and 20min atfer the injection, then resumed monoexponentially after 20min.
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  • Yuzo YAMAMOTO, Reiko HASHIGUCHI, Keiko ARAKI, Hirofumi KUSHIMA
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 444-448_1
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and practical method was developed for quantitative analysis of halofuginone (HF) in chicken tissue by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After extraction with acetate buffer (pH 4.3)-methanol (1:1) from a homogenized sample, the extract was concentrated. HF in the concentrated solution was extracted with ethyl acetate in a centrifuge tube with stopper. The ethyl acetate extract was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in HPLC mobile phase and the resulting solution was subjected to chromatography. HF was separated on a LiChrosorb RP-18 column (4.0mm×25cm) by using an acetonitrile acetate buffer (pH 4.3)-water (1:1:4) containing 0.05M tetra-n-butylammonium bromide as a mobile phase.
    The recovery of HF in chicken muscle at the level of 1μg/g was 87.4±1.8% (n=4). The lower limit of determination was 0.03μg/g in chicken tissue.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 449-450
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 450-451
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 451-452
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 452-453
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 454-455
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 455-457
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 457-458
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 458-460
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 460-462
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 462-464
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 464-465
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 465-466
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 466-468
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 468-470
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 470-471
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 471-472
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 472-474
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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  • [in Japanese]
    1991 Volume 32 Issue 5 Pages 474-475
    Published: October 05, 1991
    Released: December 11, 2009
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