Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
Online ISSN : 1882-1006
Print ISSN : 0015-6426
ISSN-L : 0015-6426
Volume 33 , Issue 6
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • Akihiko NAKAMA, Mitsuru SHIMIZU, Tadao FUJITA, Koichi KURODA, Shigeru ...
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 533-538_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Six homemade and five commercial smoke flavorings were tested for mutagenic activities by means of the Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. All the smoke flavorings were mutagenic. Homemade smoke flavorings were mutagenic in TA100, and the activities were weakened by metabolic activation. On the other hand, in TA98, homemade smoke flavorings were mutagenic only in the presence of S-9 mix. Commercial smoke flavorings were mutagenic in TA100 in the absence of S-9 mix. Further examination of a commercial smoke flavoring revealed a weak dose-dependent mutagenicity which was partly masked by cytotoxicity. However, when the toxicity was reduced by removal of volatile compounds in vacuo, the mutagenicity became obvious. A similar phenomenon was observed in a homemade smoke flavoring. In TA100 and TA98 in the presence of S-9 mix, mutagenicity of a commercial flavoring was dose-dependent but very weak. All the smoke flavorings showed DNA-damaging activities in Rec assay using Bacillus subtilis strains H17 and M45. In order to characterize the mutagens in smoke flavoring, a commercial smoke flavoring was fractionated by use of diethyl ether. In TA100, the aqueous fraction was as mutagenic in the absence of S-9 mix as in the presence of S-9 mix. On the other hand, the ether fraction was also mutagenic but the activity was weakened by addition of S-9 mix. These findings suggested that there were at least two mutagens in the smoke flavoring.
    Download PDF (738K)
  • Yoji KASUGA, Miyuki HISHIDA, Nobuyasu TANAHASHI, Makoto ARAI
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 539-542_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Disappearance of malachite green (MG) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been bathed in 1ppm aqueous solution of MG for one hour was studied by high performance liquid chromatography.
    MG was rapidly absorbed from the gills and became widely distributed. The affinity of MG was high for liver and kidney and low for serum and muscle. The peak levels of MG in serum, liver and kidney were observed just after the bathing and the peak level in muscle was observed at 4 hours after bathing. MG in serum, liver and muscle gradually decreased with a lapse of time and fell below the detection limit (0.02μg/g) within 21 days after bathing. But in kidney, the excretion of MG was very slow and its level was still high (0.22±0.08μg/g) at 42 days after bathing.
    The excretion of MG from tissues of rainbow trout was much slower than had been found in previous studies.
    Download PDF (492K)
  • Takao CHONAN
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 543-547_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 30 kinds of organophosphorus pesticides in onion and welsh onion was developed.
    First of all, the sample to be analyzed was frozen to inactivate enzymes. The sample was cut into pieces, placed in a mixer cup containing dilute phosphoric acid and then homogenized. Pesticides in the homogenized sample were extracted with aqueous acetone. The extract was concentrated in vacuo, diluted with NaCl solution and reextracted with hexane. The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with a flame photometric detector using the capillary column of ULBON HR-1.
    No interfering peak was found on the gas chromatograms of onion and welsh onion extracts. The recoveries of pesticides from onion and welsh onion at levels of 0.1μg/g were more than 77%, except for DDVP. The recoveries of DDVP were 60%. The detection limits of pesticides ranged from 0.003 to 0.04μg/g.
    Download PDF (551K)
  • Studies on Environmental Contaminants in Food. 4
    Yasuyuki MURAKAMI, Takahiro NISHIMUNE, Kenji SUEKI, Ryoichi TANAKA
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 548-556_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method of simultaneous determination of oxadiazon and oxadiazon metabolites (phenol, methoxy, acid and alcohol) in pond snail (Cipanogopaludinachinesis malleata) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by gas chromatography (ECD-GC and NP-FID-GC) was established.
    We examined pond snails from Yodo River and blue mussels from Osaka Bay by using this analytical method. Oxadiazon and oxadiazon acid form were detected at levels of 0.59-1.26ppm and 2.09-4.80ppm, respectively in pond snails and blue mussels collected from May to June 1989. Oxadiazon acid form was detected at a high concentration (3.41-6.48 times more) compared with oxadiazon in pond snails and blue mussels. The presence of oxadiazon and oxadiazon acid form detected by ECD-GC and NP-FID-GC was confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry. The other oxadiazon metabolites were not detected.
    Download PDF (857K)
  • Shigeru WAKABAYASHI, Mitsuko SATOUCHI, Yuka UEDA, Kazuhiro OHKUMA
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 557-562_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently we developed a new water-soluble dietary fiber, an indigestible dextrin (PF-C) obtained through heat and enzyme treatment of potato starch. The physiological functions of PF-C, such as improvement of glucose tolerance and lowering of serum cholesterol level, have been confirmed.
    We conducted acute toxicity and mutagenicity studies, and further, we examined the effect of PF-C on bowel movement in rats as part of a safety evaluation. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) The oral LD50 value of PF-C in mice was estimated to be more than 20.0g/kg body weight. (2) No mutagenicity was observed in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA-. (3) The excretion ratio in feces after single administration of PF-C was estimated to be 36% in rats. (4) A periodical increase of cecum weight and a decrease in pH in cecum contents were observed in rats fed a PF-C-supplemented diet. (5) Transit time of food was significantly shorter in rats fed a PF-C-supplemented diet than that in control rats.
    Download PDF (784K)
  • Yoko KAWASAKI, Yukihiro GODA, Tamio MAITANI, Kunitoshi YOSHIHIRA, Mits ...
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 563-568_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An analytical method for madder color in foods by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. As reference/guide compounds for the analysis, ruberythric acid (1), lucidin-3-O-primeveroside (2), and alizarin (3) were selected, since they are the principle coloring constituents in the ethanol-water (1:1) extract of madder. Soft drink colored with madder extract was subjected to HP-20 (Diaion) ion-exchange column chromatography prior to the HPLC procedure. Recoveries of 1, 2, and 3 from the soft drink were 83, 85, and 100%, respectively. In the case of proteinaceous foods (kamaboko and lactic drink) colored with madder extract, the raw material (5g) was homogenized in water and the homogenate was heated at 85°C for 3 hours under an acidic condition (pH 2, adjusted with HCl) to extract the reference/guide compounds. After neutralization with NH4OH solution, the homogenate was purified by HP-20 column chromatography for HPLC. By the acid treatment, 1 and 2 were partially hydrolyzed to compounds 4 and 5. On the basis of the spectroscopic data, 4 and 5 were identified as alizarin-2-O-glucoside and lucidin-3-O-glucoside, respectively. The recoveries of 1, 2, and 3 were 68, 83 and 100% (kamaboko) and 71, 78, and 100% (lactic drink), respectively, taking into account the amounts of the hydrolyzed compounds.
    Download PDF (658K)
  • Tsutomu ARAKAWA, Masaki SHIBATA, Kazuo HOSOMI, Tokinori WATANABE, Yosh ...
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 569-575_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anti-allergic effects of constituents of chewing gum were investigated in Type I allergic reactions. The results were as follows.
    Oral administration of 1, 8-cineole and n-BuOH extract of jelutong (J-4), a natural resin of Dyera costulata Hook. f., inhibited homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mediated by IgE antibody in guinea pigs. Peppermint oil, l-menthol, 1, 8-cineole, J-4 and n-BuOH extract of chicle (C-4) from Achras zapota L suppressed PCA when intraperitoneally injected. Further investigation on the above constituents showed that l-menthol, menthone, 1, 8-cineole and C-4 suppressed antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. In the Schultz-Dale reaction, some of them suppressed smooth muscle contraction induced by either histamine or serotonin.
    From these results, it is concluded that these constituents of chewing gum have antiallergic effects.
    Download PDF (806K)
  • Studies on Environmental Contaminants in Food. 5
    Yasuyuki MURAKAMI, Takahiro NISHIMUNE, Kenji SUEKI
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 576-585_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simultaneous determination method of oxadiazon and oxadiazon metabolites (phenol, methoxy, acid and alcohol derivatives) by gas chromatography was developed for terrapin processed foods and corb shell processed foods. Oxadiazon was detected in corb shell processed foods in the concentration range between N. D. and 0.017ppm, but the metabolites could not be detected. Terrapin processed foods contained oxadiazon and oxadiazon acid at concentrations of 0.033-1.95ppm and 1.27-6.08ppm, respectively. Oxadiazon acid was detected at a higher concentration than oxadiazon itself, and the ratio between them varied from 1.34 to 46.7 in terrapin processed foods. The detection of oxadiazon and oxadiazon acid in these processed foods by ECD-GC and NP-FID-GC was confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry. Other oxadiazon metabolites were not detected.
    Download PDF (778K)
  • Hisaya TERADA, Yuji NAGAI, Masaki MIYABE
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 586-592_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A rapid analytical method of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in wine by combining a simple pretreatment with the use of solid-phase extraction was developed.
    The sample was directly poured into a BAKERBOND spe C18 cartridge and eluted with 30% aqueous methanol. The eluate was subjected to HPLC and chromatographed on a Capcell Pak C18-SG120 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-0.2M phosphate buffer pH 4.0 (15:23:2). The detection was achieved with a UV monitor set at 200nm. In addition, the remainder of the eluate was extracted with ethyl acetate and subjected to GC using a semiwide capillary column DB-WAX and a flame photometric detector equipped with an S-filter.
    The recoveries from red and white wine fortified with MITC at levels of 0.05μg/ml and 0.5μg/ml were 88.4% and 94.2% by the HPLC method and 89.2% and 95.4% by the GC method, respectively. The detection limit was 0.02μg/g by both methods.
    Forty samples of commercial Italian wine were analyzed by the proposed methods. MITC was detected in one of the white wines at a level of 0.24μg/g by both methods. The MITC peak was confirmed by GC/MS.
    Download PDF (674K)
  • Izumi OHKAWA, Taneko SUZUKI
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 593-598_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Laminaria japonica is one of the major species of marine algae which has been utilized as a foodstuff since ancient times and generally believed to be good for health in Japan. The reason for the apparent benefit of algal foodstuff consumption has remained obscure, though these algae are rich in minerals. We describe in this report the possible desmutagenicity of L. japonica, and we show that L. japonica itself is harmless in terms of mutagenicity tested by Ames' method.
    Dried leaves of L. japonica were pulverized and the boiling water extract and the insoluble fraction were prepared. When added to the assay plates with or without rat liver preparation (S-9 mixture), neither fraction caused an increase in the number of revertant colonies of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 or TA100. The insoluble fraction of L. japonica reduced the numbers of revertant colonies induced by a variety of mutagens existing in food, such as dinitropyrene, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, 2-aminoanthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene, and crude coffee extract. The insoluble fraction of L. japonica, which mainly consists of indigestible dietary fiber, adsorbed dinitropyrene quickly and stably, and may thus prevent the absorption of mutagenic substances present in food.
    Download PDF (804K)
  • Tomoko MASUDA, Mie IWAYA, Heikichi MIURA, Yataro KOKUBO, Tsutomu MARUY ...
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 599-602_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to clarify the status of contamination with Listeria spp. in commercial fresh seafood, a total of 683 samples were collected from wholesale and retail shops in the Tokyo metropolitan area and examined. Listeria spp. were detected in 68 (10.0%) of the 683 samples, and the detection rate tended to be higher in samples with a larger standard plate count. In most instances the Listeria species count was less than 10/g. The most frequently found Listeria species was L. innocua, from 51 samples (7.5%). L. monocytogenes was isolated from 12 samples (1.8%). The serotype of L. monocytogenes which was most frequently found was 4b, followed by 1/2a, 1/2b and 3b.
    Download PDF (406K)
  • Sadao UCHIYAMA, Hisashi TAKEDA, Akihiko KOBAYASHI, Sumio ITO, Hiroyuki ...
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 603-608_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simple and rapid determination method of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) in wine was developed. MITC in wine was extracted with ethyl acetate and the extract was subjected to NPD-GC and GC/MS. The determination limits were 0.02ppm with NPD-GC, 0.22ppm with FPD-GC (S-mode) and 0.05ppm with GC/MS. Recoveries from wine spiked with 0.044 and 0.088ppm of MITC were 89.4% and 83.5%, respectively, from white wine and 81.6% and 75.1%, respectively, from red wine.
    MITC in wine imported from Italy was detected in the range of 0.087 to 0.349ppm in three brands out of 30 examined.
    Download PDF (521K)
  • Ken-ichi NAKAYA, Teruo NAGAYA
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 609-618_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Kunihiko TAKAHASHI, Yoji HOSHINO, Yoshikazu TOKUMARU
    1992 Volume 33 Issue 6 Pages 619-622_1
    Published: December 05, 1992
    Released: December 11, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
feedback
Top