食品衛生学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1882-1006
Print ISSN : 0015-6426
ISSN-L : 0015-6426
33 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 田中 健, 芋生 眞子, 玉瀬 喜久夫, 兎本 文昭, 岡山 明子, 大林 英之, 青木 喜也, 佐々木 美智子
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 125-132
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A simple method to detect glyphosate (PMG: (N-phosphonomethyl) glycine) and its metabolite (AMPA: aminomethylphosphonic acid) in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detection was developed.
    PMG and AMPA were extracted from fruits and vegetables with water, and the extracted solution was washed with chloroform. The water layer was further purified on a cation exchange column, and the isolated PMG and AMPA were derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC). The reaction products in the water layer were rinsed with ethyl acetate and then measured by high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detection.
    The recoveries of PMG and AMPA added to fruits were above 68 and 88% at 0.1ppm and 1.0ppm, respectively. Detection limits were 0.05ppm.
    This method is applicable for routine analysis of PMG and AMPA in fruits and vegetables.
  • 毛利 隆美, 田中 義人, 深町 和美, 堀川 和美, 高橋 克巳, 稲田 義和, 安元 健
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 133-143
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Two types of intoxication, caused by intake of carp gallbladder or mainly its muscle (Sasimi), have been reported. In order to identify the substances responsible for these carp intoxications, we initially examined the distribution of toxin in normal carp viscera and muscle by means of an acute toxicity test in ddY male mice (19-20g). It was found that the toxic substances were in gallbladder and liver-pancreas, especially bile, but not muscle. Thus, intoxication by carp gallbladder could be attributable to components normally present in carp bile. Based on the LD50 values, it was concluded that essentially all of the bile toxicity can be explained by the toxicity of cyprinol sulfate, a major component of carp bile. Furthermore, the acute toxic symptoms induced by raw bile and cyprinol sulfate were similar. On the other hand, from the result of a 50% hemolysis test, it was found that some bile acids contained in raw bile were more hemolytic than cyprinol sulfate. Taking these results into consideration, it was suggested that carp intoxication resulting from ingestion of the gallbladder could be caused by not only cyprinol sulfate but also other components, especially bile acid.
  • 堀 義宏, 長南 隆夫, 佐藤 正幸, 岡田 迪徳
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 144-149
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 小麦中の有機リン系農薬の残留調査
    小麦製粉工程及び調理加工における農薬の挙動を検討するため入手した混合小麦7試料について30種類の有機リン系農薬の残留調査を行ったところ, すべての試料からクロルピリホスメチルは0.005~0.31ppm, マラチオンは0.017~0.77ppm検出された.
    2. 小麦製粉工程における有機リン系農薬の挙動
    小麦に残留した農薬はふすまに約80%, 小麦粉に2~20%の残存が認められた.
    3. 調理加工による有機リン系農薬の挙動
    クロルピリホスメチルは, ゆでた場合50%以下まで減少したが, 焼く, 揚げるなどの調理法では50%以上の残存率を示した. 一方, マラチオンは, 焼いた場合の製品にはクロルピリホスメチルと同様50%以上の残存率を示したが, 揚げた場合には27%程度, ゆでた場合にはほとんど残存しなかった.
  • 田端 節子, 上村 尚, 井部 明広, 橋本 秀樹, 田村 行弘, 二島 太一郎
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 150-156
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The fate of 4 kinds of aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, during cooking processes, especially boiling, were investigated.
    The samples, in which aflatoxin contamination was found in our survey, were cooked to evaluate the behavior of aflatoxins during the cooking process so that we could better estimate the real intake of aflatoxins from those aflatoxin-contaminated foods. Using corn, buckwheat, adlay, nutmeg and white pepper naturally or artificially contaminated with aflatoxins, we cooked porridge from the corn and adlay, and used the nutmeg and white pepper as seasoning in sauteing and making soup.
    Sixty percent or more of aflatoxins remained after any one of the cooking processes, and there was no significant difference among the 4 aflatoxins in rate of loss. In other words, the aflatoxins could not be effectively degraded or eliminated in either sauteing or boiling processes.
    In spite of the fact that the degradation rate of aflatoxins contained in foods was found to be 10-30%, other data show that more than 80% of aflatoxins are degraded by boiling them alone, which seems to suggest that some compounds exist in food that protects aflatoxins. We also studied this point and confirmed that such a protective effect is exerted by reducing saccharides (such as glucose), proteins and amino acids, but not inorganic salts.
  • 佐藤 恭子, 岩上 敏, 合田 幸広, 山崎 壮, 米谷 民雄, 義平 邦利
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 157-163
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The transfer of auxins to cultures of organisms that could be used to produce food colors was studied by radiochemical techniques. In all cases, cells producing pigments were selected for the studies. Cells of Phytolacca americana and Glycyrrhiza glabra were incubated with [2-14C] -2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) for 72hr and 33 days, respectively. Cells of Rubia tinctorum were incubated with [2-14C] indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) for 20 days. Distributions of radioactivity following the incubation of cultured cells were studied. The results may be summarized as follows.
    1) The uptake of 2, 4-D was faster than that of IAA.
    2) Even in the long-term studies, more than 40% of radioactivity derived from auxins remained in the tissues, though the proportion of metabolites increased.
    3) IAA was metabolized faster than 2, 4-D and a considerable amount of IAA metabolites was transferred to the cell residual fractions.
    4) Intracellular 2, 4-D or IAA is extracted with the solvent which is usually used for the extraction of the pigments.
    5) Since the extract of pigments contained auxins and their metabolites, it would be necessary to purify the extract before utilizing the pigments as food colors.
  • 飯嶋 美子, 三枝 克彦, 伊東 富晴, 安生 孝子, 松木 容彦, 南原 利夫
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 164-170
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/07/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    タンパク同化剤及び代謝物の計8種のキャピラリーGC/MSによる一斉分析法を検討した. カラムにDB-1を用いたとき, 各標準品の相互分離は良好であった. また, これらの化合物に20% BSTFA-アセトニトリルとピリジンを加えて60°, 17時間反応させるとき, 誘導体化はほぼ完結した.
    牛肉からのタンパク同化剤の抽出, クリーンアップについては, 一般に脂肪除去に使われる液-液分配に加え, Bond Elut (SI) 固相抽出カラムと, Bio-Rex 70陽イオン交換カラムを併用したところ, 夾雑物質の影響を受けることなく再現性の良好な一斉分析が可能となった. 抽出, クリーンアップ操作後の肉試料に各標準品を加えて検量線を作成したところ, HEX, DES, E1, MES, E2, EtE2については50~500pg, α-ZLA, ZERについては50~250pgの範囲でいずれも良好な直線性が得られた. ついで, 肉のメタノール抽出物を用いて添加回収試験を行った結果, 満足し得る回収率が得られ, また測定操作中に異性化するDESを除くとその他の化合物の定量限界は5ppb, 検出限界は1ppbであった. 以上, 牛肉中に残留する8種のタンパク同化剤並びにその代謝物の一斉スクリーニングに十分適用し得る分析法を確立することができた.
  • Isao TOMITA, Nawaporn ANANTASINKUL, Kayoko SHIMOI, Yoshihide OKADA, Ku ...
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 171-175
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A plasmid (pYM3) carrying a fused gene ada'-'lacZ was introduced into Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 to give a strain designated TA1535/pYM3. Using this strain and the strain TA1535/pSK1002 (umuC'-'lacZ), the activity of β-galactosidase induced by DNA-damaging agents was measured by a fluorometric assay. This strain responded only to alkylating agents such as N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). The sensitivity of fluorometric assay was compared to that of the original colorimetric assay. It was found that the sensitivities were almost equal, but that the amount of substance required in the assay was about thirty times less.
    The fluorometric umu- and ada-test was also employed for the detection of mutagens in food, in comparison with the Ames test. Japanese chopped ham was tested for mutagenic activity after nitrite treatment and fractionation. All fractions gave positive results in this sensitive fluorometric assay and in the Ames test.
    The fluorometric umu- and ada-test is advantageous for assaying small amounts of various food samples. The ada-test may be useful for the screening of potential DNA-methylating agents in food samples.
  • 田中 義人, 毛利 隆美, 深町 和美, 高橋 克巳, 安元 健
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 176-182
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In recent years, many incidents of food poisoning by carp have been reported. It is important to determine the nature and amounts of the causative substances. Accurate determinations of cyprinol, one of the causative substances, and some bile acids were examined.
    Cyprinol and cholic acids were extracted from bile and muscle of carp. After alkalysis and derivatization of cyprinol, etc., analysis was carried out by FID-GC equipped with a fused silica methyl 50% phenylsilicone capillary column (25m×0.32mm i. d., 0.25μm film thickness). GC conditions were as follows: the sample was injected into solvent-cut injector and solvents were removed for 2 minutes at room temperature. The column temperature was programmed from 200°C to 260°C at 8°C/min. The injection temperature was 280°C.
    The detection limit of cyprinol was 5ng, and those of cholic acid, etc. were 3ng, based on the amount giving a signal equal to 3 times the amplitude of the baseline noise.
  • 寺田 久屋, 山本 勝彦
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 183-188
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of the cyanogenic glycosides, i. e., amygdalin (AM) and prunasin (PR), and their degradation products, i. e., benzaldehyde (BAL) and benzoic acid (BA), in processed foods containing ume (Japanese apricot Prunus mume Sieb et Zucc.) was developed.
    The sample was extracted with 0.05M citric acid solution and cleaned up by use of a Seppak C18 cartridge. The extract was chromatographed on a Capcell Pak C18 SG120 column with acetonitrile-water-0.2M phosphate buffer, pH 4.0 (16: 79: 5). Detection was achieved with a UV monitor set at 210nm. The peaks corresponding to AM and PR were confirmed by examination of the effect of emulsin treatment.
    The recoveries from ume extract, umeboshi (dried and salted ume), umeshu (Japanese apricot wine) and ume jam fortified with AM, PR, BAL and BA at levels of 40-100μg/g each were 86.9-100.6% (C. V. 3.7-7.7%) for AM, 69.9-105.3% (0.9-4.2%) for PR, 71.9-85.0% (1.8-2.6%) for BAL and 82.7-99.1% (0.8-4.8%) for BA, except for AM in the ume extract and the umeboshi. AM in ume extract and umeboshi could not be determined owing to interference by contaminants.
    The determination limits were 10μg/g for AM, 2μg/g for PR, and 1μg/g for BAL and BA, respectively.
  • 寺田 久屋, 山本 勝彦
    1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 189-195
    発行日: 1992/04/05
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 市内のデパートの健康食品コーナーなどで購入した58製品の梅加工食品についてAM, PR, 遊離シアンをそれぞれ定量し総シアン量を求めるとともにAM, PRの分解生成物であるBA及びBAL量を測定した.
    2. AMは, 梅肉エキス及び梅肉エキスを用いた菓子類に100μg/g (HCN換算5.9μg/g) 以上残留する製品が多く認められた.
    3. PRは, AM含有量の高い梅肉エキス類のほか, 梅干し及び梅干し加工品類, 梅シソ加工品類から比較的高濃度な製品が認められた. 一般にAMに比較して広範囲な製品から検出された.
    4. 遊離シアンは, 梅漬け類及び梅干し類に10μg/g近い濃度の製品が認められたが, 加熱処理を伴う梅肉エキス及び乾燥梅製品などでは低濃度であった.
    5. 総シアンは, AM及びPRの高い梅肉エキス類, 遊離シアンの高い梅漬け類及び梅干し類から平均5μg/g以上認められた. 最高濃度は梅肉エキスで112.9μg/gであり, 1回の摂取量から考えて健康的には問題ない量と思われる.
    6. BALは, 梅干し類, 梅漬け類に比較的高い濃度の製品が認められたが, 加熱処理を行った梅肉エキス及び乾燥梅製品では, ほとんど検出されなかった.
    7. BAは, BALとは反対に加熱処理を行った梅肉エキス及び乾燥梅製品において高い値を示した.
  • 1992 年 33 巻 2 号 p. 207
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
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