This study aimed to investigate the awareness of public health nurses (PHNs) regarding health foods and the actual utilization of health food-related information in specific health guidance. A questionnaire survey among PHNs working in municipalities in Kagoshima Prefecture (n=170, response rate; 41.5%) was conducted in September 2022. As a result, 39.4% of the PHNs had experience using health foods, and 43.5% consulted about health food from local residents. Major topics of consultation included effectiveness (78.4%) and drug interactions (35.1%). Approximately 10.2% of the PHNs always confirm the use of health food during specific health guidance, while 41.6% did not ever check. Additionally, 36.3% of the PHN were aware of the obligation to report adverse events caused by health foods to the prefectural governments and Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. The present study showed that recognition and intelligibility on health foods varied among PHNs. Therefore, knowledge acquisition on safety and efficacy is needed for proper use of health foods.
Microbial colony counts of food samples in microbiological examinations are one of the most important items. The probability distributions for the colony counts per agar plate at the dilution of counting had not been intensively studied so far. Recently we analyzed the colony counts of food samples with several probability distributions using the Pearson’s chi-square value by the “traditional” statistics as the index of fit [Fujikawa and Tsubaki, Food Hyg.Saf.Sc., 60, 88–95 (2019)]. As a result, the selected probability distributions depended on the samples. In this study we newly selected a probability distribution, namely a statistical model, suitable for the above data with the method of maximum likelihood from the probabilistic point of view. The Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) was used as the index of fit. Consequently, the Poisson model were better than the negative binomial model for all of four food samples. The Poisson model was also better than the binomial for three of four microbial culture samples. With Baysian Information Criterion (BIC), the Poisson model was also better than these two models for all the samples. These results suggested that the Poisson distribution would be the best model to estimate the colony counts of food samples. The present study would be the first report on the statistical model selection for the colony counts of food samples with AIC and BIC.
Spices have been known to be highly contaminated commodities with mycotoxins. The Codex Alimentarius reports that nutmeg is particularly contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA). To eliminate contaminated commodities, visual sorting and bright greenish-yellow fluorescence (BGYF) sorting are used as low-cost technologies in production engineering. In Indonesia, nutmeg is mainly sorted by visual sorting and classified into three grades according to the Indonesian national standards, with importers further defining their own brand as imported products. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of BGYF sorting as a further selection method to reduce AFs and OTA using the importer’s own brand. Further, the level of these mycotoxins and the relationship between fungal flora and mycotoxin contamination were examined. These results showed that BGYF sorting effectively reduces AFs as well as OTA. In addition, BGYF-positive groups were infected by Aspergillus sections Flavi, Nigri, and Circumdati.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail meat (chicken, beef, pork, venison, wild boar, horse, lamb and mutton) in Tokyo (Japan) from 2010 to 2019. Furthermore, the resistance mechanism of erythromycin (EM)-resistant strains was analysed. C. jejuni had a highly positive rate in domestic chicken meat (53.4%, 334/626 samples), domestic chicken offal (49.3%, 34/69 samples), and domestic beef offal (28.3%, 47/166 samples), while C. coli had a high positivity rate in domestic pork offal (31.7%, 44/139 samples). The positive rate of C. jejuni was significantly higher in offal than that in meat in domestic beef, while the positive rate of C. coli was significantly higher in offal than that in meat in domestic beef and domestic pork (p<0.05). In the isolates, 1.0% (6/631 strains) of C. jejuni and 36.2% (55/152 strains) of C. coli were EM resistant, with 41.5% (262/631 strains) of C. jejuni and 65.1% (99/152 strains) of C. coli being ciprofloxacin resistant. A2075G mutation of the 23S rRNA gene was confirmed in all EM-resistant strains.