Analytical survey of plasticizers used in about 500 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys in Japanese market was performed in 2014. The results obtained were compared with those obtained in 2009. Fifteen types of plasticizers including di (2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) were detected. These plasticizers were also detected in the products in 2009, suggesting that the types of plasticizers used in PVC toys have not been changed. Among these detected plasticizers, the detection ratios of DEHTP were 60.3 and 73.7% in both designated and not-designated toys, respectively, both of which are the highest. These ratios are over 20-points higher than those in 2009. The six types of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) prohibited to use for the designated toys in Japan were not detected in designated toys used in this study. However, four types of PAEs, including three types of prohibited PAEs, were detected in not-designated toys with the detection ratios from 2.8 to 15.5%. These ratios are lower than those in 2009. The content levels of plasticizers used in the toys are lower than those in 2009. These results show that the main plasticizer used in PVC toys is DEHTP, and that the usage levels of plasticizers have been decreased.
This study aimed to survey the trend of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli obtained from retail meat. We examined the susceptibilities of 1,115 E. coli isolates obtained from chicken, beef, pork, venison, and wild boar meat from 2011 to 2017 in Tokyo to 14 antimicrobials (ampicillin, cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline (TC), chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, imipenem, and meropenem). Of all the tested isolates, 18.7% (135/721) isolates from chicken, 77.0% (117/152) from beef, 46.6% (89/187) from pork, 100% (28/28) from venison, and 92.6% (25/27) from wild boar meat were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. Furthermore, TC resistance was the most common, with rates as high as 56.7% (409/721) and 40.6% (76/187) in the isolates from chicken and pork, respectively. CTX resistance was detected in 4.9% (25/506) of the isolates from domestic chicken and 23.7% (51/215) of the isolates from imported chicken. Moreover, CTX resistance rate in isolates from domestic chicken was significantly lower in 2016 (0.9%, 1/111) and in 2017 (0.8%, 1/121) than in 2012 (10.6%, 17/161). In conclusion, E. coli isolates from retail meat were most commonly resistant to TC, and CTX resistance was higher in E. coli isolates from imported chicken than in E. coli isolates from domestic chicken.
We developed an analytical method for determining 15 antifungal drugs, 2 antiparasitic drugs, and 3 veterinary drugs in fish and livestock products using LC-MS/MS. First, 50% ethanol was added to their products, and the mixture was homogenized to reduce drug degradation. Thereafter, 20 drugs were extracted from the pretreated sample mixture using acetonitrile. Cleanup was performed using an alumina-N SPE cartridge. Finally, chromatographic separation was performed using a fully porous octadecyl silanized silica column. The new method is applicable to fish in which the matrix hampers accurate analysis. It was validated on 8 fish and livestock products. Drug recovery rates ranged from 70.2 to 109.3%, RSDs of repeatability were <18.0%, and RSDs of within-laboratory reproducibility were <18.7%. It fulfills the Japanese guideline criteria. The limits of quantification were estimated as 3 ng/g.
A method was developed for the determination of nonvolatile amines, such as histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and cadaverine, in foods. These nonvolatile amines were extracted from a sample with 5% trichloroacetic acid, and the extract was purified using an InertSep MC-1 cartridge column. The four amines were derivatized with fluorescamine, determined by HPLC with a fluorescence detector, and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. The average recoveries (n=5) and the relative standard deviations from 11 foods (pacific saury, dried mackerel, canned mackerel in brine, canned tuna in oil, fish sauce, surimi, rice-koji miso, soy sauce, gouda cheese, red wine, and beer) spiked at 100 mg/kg were 81–100% and 0.4–3.1%, respectively.
A rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method by LC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the determination of cyclamate in various kinds of foods. The Preparation of test solutions was performed by heat extraction technique in accordance with an official notification method in Japan. We aimed to reduce the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS only by diluting extracts without clean-up using solid phase column. This method was assessed for 30 kinds of foods fortifying cyclamate at the concentration level of 0.5 μg/g. As a result, trueness was 85.0 to 106.6%, repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 1.7 to 9.4%, and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDwr) ranged from was 4.1 to 9.7%. These date supported the reliability our method. Thus, this method could be useful for a rapid determination of cyclamate in various kinds of foods.