A rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of fipronil and fipronil sulfone (metabolite B) in livestock products was developed. The analytes were extracted from samples with acidic acetonitrile. The crude extracts were subjected to clean-up step using neutral alumina cartridge column. The HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile and ammonium formate solution. For the determination of the analytes, a tandem mass spectrometry with negative ion electrospray ionization was used. In the recovery tests using 6 livestock products fortified with MRLs levels of analytes, the truenesses for fipronil and fipronil sulfone were 95 to 115 and 94 to 101% with the repeatabilities of 0.8 to 4.1 and 0.9 to 5.1 RSD%, respectively. The limits of quantification for both analytes were estimated to be 0.001 mg/kg. The developed method is considered suitable for regulatory analysis of fipronil and fipronil sulfone.
To recognize the risk of Bacillus cereus in pasteurized milk, we investigated the prevalence of B. cereus and the rate of the production of cereulide from B. cereus isolates. B. cereus was found in 66 out of 101 (65.3%) domestically pasteurized milk samples in Japan. The ces gene was identified in 3 out of 90 B. cereus isolates that were isolated from three samples (one product) among the 101 samples. The ces gene positive isolate, the reference strain F4810/72 and a B. cereus isolate collected in a food poisoning incident were shown the productivity of cereulide using an LC-MS/MS analysis. The LC-MS/MS analysis was confirmed the ability of identification and quantification of cereulide produced in the milk samples. In this study, it was shown that B. cereus strains are prevalent in pasteurized milk, some of these strains produce cereulide, and confirmed usefulness of LC-MS/MS analysis to detect cereulide in milk.
We screened 360 chemicals and discovered that 71 chemicals had anti-Kudoa septempunctata effect. Especially 19 and seven of 71 chemicals were antibiotics and antibacterial agents/disinfectants, respectively. The other 45 chemicals were pesticides, natural toxins, industrial chemicals and medicines for non-infectious diseases. Nineteen antibiotics that possessed anti-Kudoa effect contained four tetracyclines, one steroid, two macrolides, one aminoglycoside, three β-lactams, one quinolone, two rifamycines, one polyene, one novobiocine, one sulfonamide and two nitroimidazoles. To use these drugs for prevention of Kudoa infection, the further study is need for the determination of effective dose.
We examined the expansion of target food products for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). From our studies in fish using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) and GC-MS/MS, we found that recovery of low-chlorinated PCBs (some isomer of 3 or 4 chlorinated PCBs) in specific food products was low. Therefore, we attempted to improve the analytical method. In Japanese sea perch (Suzuki) and milk, freeze drying before extracting with ASE did not sufficiently improve the recovery of low-chlorinated PCBs; however, it was significantly improved by changing the column to a silica gel/H2SO4 silica gel multilayer column. To evaluate this method for other food products, PCBs in fish, meat, eggs, milk, and dairy products were analyzed. The samples were extracted using ASE at 125℃ with n-hexane, cleaned up using a silica gel/H2SO4 silica gel multilayer column, and analyzed by GC-MS/MS for 3–7 chlorinated PCBs. The limit of quantification for this method was was 0.03–0.16 μg/kg for the 3–7 chlorinated PCBs. The recovery and the coefficient of variation of 3–7 chlorinated PCBs from each of the food products (n=5) was in the range of 84%–112% and 1%–9%, respectively.
Herein, we quantified the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in 63 milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in Japan, Vietnam, and Indonesia. We estimated the daily intake of Cd and As by adults and children consuming this rice by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Cd and As were detected in all milled rice samples. No significant differences were observed in Cd concentrations between Japanese (50th percentile concentration: 0.036 mg/kg), Vietnamese (0.035 mg/kg), and Indonesian rice (0.022 mg/kg). However, As concentrations in Vietnamese rice (50th percentile concentration: 0.142 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those in Japanese (0.101 mg/kg, p<0.001) and Indonesian rice (0.038 mg/kg, p<0.0001). Target hazard quotients (THQs) were then calculated to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health risk from ingestion of individual heavy metals (Cd and As) by rice consumption. Results revealed that THQs of individual heavy metals for Japanese, Vietnamese, and Indonesian adults and children consuming this rice were all less than one, suggesting that no health risk is associated with the intake of a single heavy metal via rice consumption.
In order to evaluate microbial growth in opened PET bottled soft drinks, inoculation tests were carried out using type and reference strains of various microorganisms. Microorganisms were inoculated into a 500 mL PET bottle containing 250 mL of various soft drinks followed by incubation until 1 week at 4, 25, 35℃ without shaking, and 35℃ with shaking. The microbial counts were measured over time and compared with the results of the previous study “Studies on Contaminants in Soft Drink”2)-4). As a result, similar growth patterns were observed in the combination of tomato juice with Lactobacillus fermentum, sports drink with Candida albicans, and mineral water with Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, in green tea, mixed herb tea, orange juice and coffee with milk, the growth of microorganisms generally tended to be weaker than those of the previous studies. It was considered that components in the soft drinks inhibited the growth of the microorganisms. From the above results, the proliferative properties of type and reference strains in soft drinks were clearly different from the spoiled soft drinks isolates. The results in this study indicated that attention must be paid in the safety evaluation.
Total organic carbon (TOC) was measured in some kinds of mineral water, and the method was validated. In mineral water, there are many kinds of elements such as carbon dioxide and a wide range of hardness. The official method for amount of TOC in tap water was validated in non-carbonated mineral water regardless of the degree of hardness. However, the amount of TOC was not accurately measured in two kinds of carbonated mineral water with medium or high degree of hardness. In our method of this study, the removal of carbon dioxide from the two kinds of mineral water was achieved by making bubbling time longer and additive rate of HCl upper than the official condition of tap water. And then, the method we developed was validated in the two kinds of mineral water. Our results suggested that the method we developed could be useful to measure the amount of TOC in many kinds of mineral water on the market.