After an eyewitness undergoes the identification procedure, giving feedback (e.g., “Good, you identified the suspect”) regarding the accuracy of the identification inflates the eyewitness’s confidence in the identification, regardless of its accuracy. This phenomenon is called the postidentification feedback effect (PIFE) (Wells & Bradfield, 1998). The PIFE affects the eyewitness’s confidence, how good was the eyewitness’s view of the culprit, and the eyewitness’s willingness to testify at trial. An eyewitness’s high confidence in an identification is perceived as an indicator of its accuracy. Therefore, judges and lay-judges who hear the testimony of witnesses affected by PIFE may overestimate its accuracy, which may lead to a wrongful conviction. For approximately 20 years since the report of Wells and Bradfield (1998), substantial research has demonstrated this effect. In this paper, we reviewed the research and categorized the factors that cause PIFE and its nature. The mechanism responsible for PIFE is also addressed. We also provide some considerations and discuss the future direction of PIFE research.
In this paper, the role of language in emotion experience and emotion perception was investigated by reviewing the theory and evidence. By referring to the model of emergence and perception of emotion, the developmental stage at which language would influence these processes was indicated. The developmental perspective, which has rarely been focused on, was investigated by reviewing studies of infants and children. For emotion experience, our findings suggested that the inner conditions can be represented in two dimensions. For emotion perception, crude information such as information associated with “positive” or “negative” can be decoded without language. However, categorical recognition of emotion in experience and perception may require language.