Recent developments in carbon fiber running-specific prostheses (RSPs) have allowed individuals with lower extremity amputation (ILEA) to regain the functional capability of running. There are many amputee sprinters who are now able to run faster and achieve longer jumps than able-bodied athletes. However, ironically, this phenomenon has raised a debate in the scientific community regarding the potential advantages or disadvantages of RSPs in athletic ILEA compared to able-bodied counterparts in running. This article describes the history, classification, and regulations of RSPs, and current world records in athletic ILEA. Finally, a debate regarding the advantages or disadvantages of RSPs is presented.