In recent years, collaboration among various individuals and organizations on local tourism promotion is becoming increasingly important. Bearing this in mind, the present paper examines the concept of collaboration on local tourism promotion and appropriate forms of organization for collaboration. The main points discussed in the paper are the following:
First, collaboration entails such essential elements as a shared purpose, close contact among participants, and willingness to engage in cooperative work. Second, in order for an organizational body for collaboration to be formed and to sustain itself, it is necessary to clarify the aims to be attained and to keep motivating the members of the body to communicate and cooperate with each other. Third, the body for collaboration can be formed and managed either in a hierarchical manner or with equal partnership among all those involved. Collaboration of
individuals and organizations loosely connected in the latter form should be promoted for the development of tourism in local areas.
Finally, it is important for a collaborative body to respect the autonomy of each individual member and to have a competent director.
Matsuyama was one of the first local cities that had contact with foreigners in modern Japan. Furthermore, during the Japan-Russian War, Prisoner of War camps were also established in Matsuyama. During that time, both the Japanese government and citizens of Matsuyama tried to treat POWs as humanely as possible because they wanted that the international community to regard Japan as a civilized country. This aspect is introduced in Ryotaro Shiba's novel as
”Saka no ue no kumo.” Currently, Matsuyama promotes local development programs that feature the world of ”Saka no ue no kumo.” Using this concept has both positive and negative aspects. However, the key to success will be to provide generous hospitality to the visitors which has been the tradition of the Matsuyama people since ancient times. This practice is useful not only for local development, but also for attracting foreign tourists.
In Japan hot springs are abundant and are used well in resort areas. The tendency seems to become more popular with changes of life-styles of Japanese. However amount of hot spring in each resort area has a limit according to number of hotels because it has to be used every day as blood in human body.
In the paper, firstly management of hot spring as a common resource is discussed, secondly the system and models are analyzed from the case study of 4 hot springs such as Onogawa, Ikaho, Hakone Owakudani and Nozawa as well a basic date of hot spring.
In conclusion, to cope with an increase of tourists, management of hot spring has changed to be more intensive and sustainable on the base both of using spring systems as common resources and models as shown in the paper.