This research explores the possibility that people overestimate others’ positive beliefs toward overtime work (i.e. occurrence of pluralistic ignorance) and the moderating effect of psychological safety on the relationship between pluralistic ignorance and the behavior. The results demonstrate the following two points: People overestimate the others’ approval of overtime work and higher perception of psychological safety in the workplaces attenuate the negative influence of pluralistic ignorance on expressing opinion.
This paper discusses the concept of Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior (UPB). UPB is defined as “actions that are intended to promote the effective functioning of the organization or its members (e.g., leaders) but violate core societal values, mores, laws, or standards of proper conduct” (Umphress and Bingham 2011: p. 622). Research on UPB has been undertaken in various studies in recent years; however, there are few studies in Japan. In this work, we review the literature on UPB. Firstly, we clarify the difference between UPB and other similar concepts so as to further the understanding on UPB. Secondly, we discuss from the view point of the socio-psychological mechanism and process model, particularly with regard to moral disengagement and neutralization. After introducing the measurement items of UPB, we explain the relationship between UPB and other concepts, such as attitude, leadership style, and individual and contextual aspects, by reviewing various empirical studies. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.
This study examines the determining factors and impact of social capital, along with human resource management practices, on workplace performance. Data were collected twice related to two changes in Japanese companies’ workplaces affecting human resource management. As a result of the analysis, social capital was confirmed to have an impact on workplace performance. Furthermore, human resource development practices and performance-based pay practices were both positive influences on the formation of social capital. This result shows that the formation of social capital is not a combination of human resource development practices and seniority system, which had been the prevailing and consistent perspective in human resource management. Instead, a combination of human resource development practices and performance-based pay practices generate a better rationale for social capital formation.
Relying on formerly influential premises and ways of thinking is one of the key aspects of research activity; however, research ideas might be bound with and narrowed by doing so faithfully. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the nature and realities of organizations, work groups and individuals, from the viewpoint of paradoxes inherent in each of them. We can gain new insight into the dynamics and principles so far overlooked. In this article, new prospects of the studies on organizational behavior, particularly in the research fields of motivation, leadership and group, and creativity and innovation, are presented and discussed in consideration of inherent paradoxes. Recent studies, which claim reconsideration of previously influential premises and arguments by adopting the paradoxical standpoint, are also mentioned.
This paper investigates business opportunities for start-up companies that involve in forming alliances with and providing new technologies to existing companies that find it difficult to respond to disruptive technological changes. Scholars have shown that firms facing disruptive innovation have difficulties adapting new technologies and often lose their market position as a result. To cope with this challenge, these companies form alliances with new companies and build complementary relationships. This paper investigates the possible strategic positioning for new entrants that choose to form alliances with existing companies, rather than using new technologies to compete with them. To clarify those firms’ business models, the paper analyses an exploratory case study in the market research industry in Japan. Results indicate that cooperative market entries using new technologies are more likely to take place for industrial goods than consumer goods, as industrial trading relationships are comparatively fixed. Furthermore, cooperative entries become possible when customers only vaguely understand their needs and do not clearly evaluate products or services.
Existing studies have argued that incremental innovations, such as kaizen, are rather normative and always driven by workers and work teams. This paper challenges this stereotypical image of kaizen as incremental innovation; it clarifies that kaizen consists of a series of various individual improvements of different sizes. Furthermore, the paper discusses that some improvement projects require coordination beyond the working groups. For these reasons, it is required for managerial decisions to choose the size of innovations a firm should concentrate on and the type of organizational structures a firm should select for kaizen.