A new carapid fish, Tetragondacnus spilotus gen. et. sp. nov., is described from a single specimen collected off Sumatra, Indonesia. This unusual species chiefly differs from all confamilials in having the following combination of characters: dorsal fin origin in advance of anal fin origin, first neural spine a wing-like process larger than second neural spine, no rocker bone, no predorsal bone, no supraneurals, no upper jaw teeth, no developed gill rakers, parapophysis of third centrum enlarged, 13 precaudal vertebrae, 11 caudal fin rays, unmodified dorsal and anal pterygiophores, presence of scales, swim bladder simple and large, squarish mouth with two lower lip lobes, oral valve with thick median septum, united branchiostegal membranes, and large dark blotches on the body. Subfamilial status for the new species is proposed.
There are no significant morphological differences between the four syntypes of the pinguipedid sandperch Perch caudimaculatum Haly, 1875 and the holotype of Parapercis ommatura Jordan and Snyder, 1902. The former nominal taxon is thus a subjective senior synonym of the latter, but it is also a junior homonym of Percis caudimaculata Riippell, 1838, and thus invalid. In addition, Riippell's taxon, now assigned to the genus Parapercis, has been recognized as a junior synonym of Parapercis hexophtalma (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829). Parapercis ommatura, being the first available junior synonym of Parapercis caudimaculata (Haly, 1875), becomes the valid name for the species.
Species of the ant genus Odontomachus in Japan are revised. Type comparison and detailed morphological analysis show that O. kuroiwae (Matsumura, 1912) is an independent species from O. monticola Emery, 1892 and that the former species is distributed in Okinawa Island and Okinoerabu Island in the Ryukyu Islands. Lectotypes of both species are designated. All three castes of O. kuroiwae and O. monticola are characterized. All castes of O. kuroiwae, and the worker and male of O. monticola, are illustrated with scanning electron micrographs and light micrographs. The queen of O. kuroiwae is described for the first time. Odontomachus kuroiwae and O. monticola are morphologically distinguished and taxonomically discussed. Our morphological analysis suggested that O. monticola consists of a complex of several species. Additional notes on the morphology and distribution of both species in Japan are also given.
Three species of the genus Cardiastethus Fieber, 1860 are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, where no species of the genus has hitherto been known: C. exiguus Poppius, 1913, C. minutissimus Usinger, 1946, and C. yasunagai sp. nov. The new species is fully described and illustrated. A diagnosis is given for each of the two former species. A key to distinguish the three local species is given.
A new species of soft-winged flower beetle, Troglocollops sundukovi sp. nov., is described from southern Primorye, Russian Far East. The male head and genitalia are illustrated and compared with closely allied congeneric species. A map showing the distribution of the new species and two closely allied congeneric species occurring in Northeast Asia is presented.
Three species of the anomuran sand crab genus Albunea Weber, 1795, including a new species, are reported from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Albunea okinawaensis sp. nov. resembles A. symmysta (Linnaeus, 1758) in the morphologies of the setose carapace grooves, dactylus of pereopod III, and posterior margin of the male telson, but differs in the shapes of both the distal segment of the ocular peduncle and the male telson. Albunea microps Miers, 1878 and A. groeningi Boyko, 2002 are recorded for the first time from the Ryukyu Islands, although both species have been reported from the Japanese mainland.
Two species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Kamakidae) are described from Japan. Kamaka biwae Ueno, 1943 occurred only in Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, and the morphological characters and coloration of the present material agree with Ueno's description except for the shape of coxa 5. Kamaka morinoi sp. nov. was collected from brackish and freshwater areas in Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tottori, and Shimane Prefectures. Its morphological features closely resemble those of K. biwae, but K. morinoi can be distinguished from K. biwae by the following points: (1) higher numbers of plumose setae on the posterior margins of pereopods 5-7, (2) smaller maximal body length, and (3) male coloration (especially in coxa 1). The distributions of the two species suggest that K. biwae speciated from K. morinoi or that they share a common ancestor.