Eleven oligochaete taxa were found in the Edinka Stream, Primorskij Region, dominated by Cernosvitoviella pensau Timm, 1994 ; Propappus arhynchotus Sokolskaja, 1972 ; Rhyacodrilus komarovi Timm, 1990 ; and R. coccineus (Vejdovsky, 1875). The oligochaete fauna was similar in two well-separated reference streams, the Edinka and the Frolovka, but poor in comparison with a third stream, the Komarovka. Slight zoogeographical relations to the Kamcatka Peninsula are evident in the Edinka and Frolovka, both of which flow down the eastern slope of the Sihote-Alin Mountains.
A new cyclostome bryozoan, Rodinopora magnifica gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Sea of Okhotsk. It is compared with other genera of fossil and living bryozoans also having stalked, mushroom-shaped or fungiform colonies. This growth-form is notable in being far commoner in cyclostomes than in any other orders of bryozoans. All existing fungiform cyclostome genera are reviewed and briefly redescribed. Seventeen genera are provisionally recognized. These are distributed among 10 nominal families as currently understood. Fungiform growth represents a strategy for elevating the feeding zooids above the surface of the substratum, potentially as a means of preventing overgrowth or of accessing regions of higher current flow in the boundary layer for feeding.
Direct protein sequencing of the eight hemocyanin subunits from the scorpion Liocheles australasiae gave the N-terminal sequences for the first 16-41 amino acid residues. From sequence comparisons among L. australasiae hemocyanin subunits and between hemocyanin subunits from L. australasiae and Androctonus australis, it is deduced that duplications of two subunits occurred in the lineage of L. australasiae. From the N-terminal sequence comparison among hemocyanin subunits from L. australasiae, A. australis, and Buthus sindicus, it is inferred that at least one orthologous subunit derived from a common ancestor is shared among the three scorpions. Thus, N-terminal sequence analysis is regarded as a good method to identify orthologous subunits among many homologues between species.
The Parapodisma setouchiensis group (Catantopidae) is revised based on geographic variation in external morphology. This group appears to constitute a single polytypic species, P. setouchiensis Inoue, consisting of four geographic forms (Basic, Mt. Hyonosen, Tanba, and Yamato). Four taxa, Parapodisma tanba, P. yamato, P. hyonosenensis hyonosenensis, and P. hyonosenensis kibi, are treated as junior synonyms of P. setouchiensis. The polarity of character states in the P. setouchiensis group was inferred from the distribution pattern of the geographic forms. All pairs of adjacent forms intergrade through relatively narrow zones that may have originated from secondary contact. In two genital characters (triangular marking and cercus morphology), there are clines with different ranges across the boundary between the Tanba and Mt. Hyonosen forms.
A total of 78 Japanese species belonging to the family Tetranychidae (spider mites) are assigned to two subfamilies, five tribes, 16 genera, and 13 species groups (only in four genera). A guide to identification of the Japanese species is provided, and information is also given about the important literature references, host plants, and distribution of each species. Three new species, Eotetranychus rubricans, Oligonychus gotohi, and Tetranychus parakanzawai are described. Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor), recently recorded from Japan, is redescribed.
Life histories and nesting behaviour are presented and illustrated for the eleven species of Pompilidae recognised from New Zealand. Behaviours distinctive for each species are listed, and are related to morphological specialisations of the adult female. Cryptocheilus australis (Guerin) makes multicelled, compound nests in heavy, clay soils. One daughter may occupy her mother's nest and construct further cells extending from the main burrow the following season, while her adult male siblings may continue to occupy the nest. Host spiders are dragged to the nest dorsum up, grasped by the chelicerae. Spiders are positioned upside down, with the chelicerae facing the inner end of the cell. All other New Zealand Pepsinae drag the prey upside down by a leg base to the vicinity of the nest entrance, then drag it into the nest by the spinnerets. The spinnerets point towards the inner end of the cell, while the chelicerae face the cell entrance. Priocnemis (Trichocurgus) monachus (Smith) and P. (T.) conformis Smith prey mostly on mygalomorph spiders, the first stinging the prey to permanent paralysis and usually making deep, multicelled nests in clay soils, although there is considerable variation in its nests. Priocnemis (T.) conformis generally makes single-celled nests and positions the spider in the cell dorsum up. The egg is laid on the dorsum of the spider's opisthosoma. The spider recovers from paralysis and spins a thick web of mat on the cell floor. Priocnemis (T.) nitidiventris Smith usually makes single-celled nests in sand. It runs forwards with its prey spiders, much in the manner of the widely distributed extralimital species Pompilus cinereus (Fabricius). Priocnemis (T.) ordishi Harris is very closely related to P. (T.) nitidiventris but nests in clay, making multicelled nests. It also runs forwards with spiders. Both P. (T.) carbonarius Smith and P. (T.) crawi Harris make single- or multicelled nests in clay. Both species drag spiders backwards. Sphictostethus nitidus Fabricius makes single- or multicelled nests in the soil while S. calvus Harris nests in rotting logs and rotting tree trunks, closing its nests with wood fragments, fibres, and spider web. Sphictostethus fugax Fabricius nests in abandoned beetle holes in wood in trees, closing the nest with moulded mud. In both morphology and behaviour S. fugax has converged towards tribe Ageniellini, but differs in never amputating legs of prey and not running forwards with prey held by spinnerets. Instead, like other species of the tribe Pepsini, it drags spiders backwards by the base of a third leg coxa, grasping prey by the spinnerets only during final placement in the cell. Epipompilus insularis Kohl does not drag spiders to a nest, but oviposits on spiders in concealed places where it finds them, often within the spider's silken cocoon as she guards her eggs. The spider can run about normally after acquiring an E. insularis egg. All New Zealand Pompilidae lack nest cleptoparasites, resulting in some unusual features in nesting behaviour.