One of the most important changes that have taken place in European societies since the 1960s and 1970s has been the incorporation of women to paid employment. The industrial economy-pretty much built around male workers has given way to a service economy changing jobs and also workers. These changes in employment together with changes in the role of women has brought about a wide number of tensions and conflicts in modern European societies. This presentation will firstly revise changing dynamics and existing tensions between the participation of women in paid employment and fertility. Secondly, the presentation will look at developments in childcare provision (Early Childhood Education and Care - ECEC) within the frame- work of a proposed paradigm change of welfare states through 'social investment'. The presentation will give an overview of the current academic and political debate around the pros and cons of expanding service provision for small children (that is, children under compulsory school age). Developments in ECEC have certainly been backed up by a vast amount of research that prove, albeit with different emphasis, positive links between investment in ECEC and (1) female labour force participation, (2) fertility dynamics (3) children's opportunities in life and (4) productivity imperatives in the knowledge-based economy. Despite the fact that causal connections are very difficult to identify [Gerda and Andersson, 2008], it truly exists strong empirical evidence on the connections between the labour market participation of women - specially mothers with under school age children - and availability of childcare provision and/or other family-oriented policies [Kamerman and Moss 2009; Boje and Ejnraes 2011]. Family policies oriented towards female employment - such as availability of public childcare - have a positive impact on levels of female employment [Gauthier, 2007] and vice versa. However, there are significant differences between European countries not just in levels of ECEC coverage but on aspects related to the quality of the provision. Furthermore, it is important to look at ECEC development within broader policies for the reconciliation of work and family life, mainly forms of flexible but secured employment and parental leave schemes. The presentation will finally give an overview of the present challenges and dilemmas that European countries face nowadays with expanding ECEC services in the context of strong austerity social and economic programmes that the EU is imposing on member states as a response to the economic crisis.
This paper tries to contrast the livelihood security system (hereafter LSS) of Japan with that of Denmark in some crucial aspects, based on the comments I gave regarding Prof. Greve's speech in the Panel Session on 'Care Services as Social Investment; Denmark and Japan' at the 124^<th> Conference of the Society for the Study of Social Policy, held on 27th May 2012. It first clarifies LSS as a theoretical framework, and then presents international comparisons of some aspects of employment performance, situations of redistribution by the government, and governance (total effects) of LSS. In place of concluding remarks, it poses some questions to be further considered and explored.
This article, focusing on elderly care and taking Japan's experience of LTC policy into consideration, suggests several issues that need to be explored in order to further develop the conceptual framework for social investment. Rough outlines of the performance of LTC in OECD countries, including Denmark and Japan, are given. This is followed by a short historical description of Japan's LTC policy. Then, some problematic issues, which it is necessary to deal with in order to integrate social investment perspectives into elderly care policy, are raised. In addition to pointing out further room to develop explanatory models for variations and changes in social investment strategies, three problematic issues are examined. The first regards indicators for social investment, the second is associated with the different interpretations and meanings attached to the concept of social investment, and the last concerns incorporating the conditions of care work into the analytical and theoretical framework for social investment strategies.
This article analyses and discusses the options and possibilities of combining work and family life in a universal welfare state, e. g. Denmark. Related to the ability to combine work and family life is the welfare states investment in affordable and high quality day care and a perspective on caring for elderly citizens. The theoretical underpinnings of universal welfare states is given and also the reason why it has been important to ensure and be able to combine work and family life. The article shows how Denmark, Sweden and Finland compare with countries from other and different types of welfare states in Europe with regard to the caring for children, female participation rates and support to the elderly. Support to families in cash is also discussed including the size of the state budget to family policy. Besides presenting central quantitative indicators the article also gives a short historical depiction of especially the development in family policy in Denmark. Finally, the article offers an explanation of how and why it has been possible to develop a comprehensive welfare state in Denmark.