It is considered to be a success case of sports sponsorship that many sports spectators are regarded as having a consumption style of life. The purpose of this paper is to test the following two hypotheses about the accepted styles of sports spectators. The first hypothesis (H1) is that opinion leaders of sponsored products are opinion leaders of sports spectators. The second hypothesis (H2) is that opinion leaders of sponsored products tend to watch sport games frequently. Although many researchers have believed in these two hypotheses, they have not necessarily proven them. These two hypotheses were tested using Opinion Leadership Scale. The results showed that neither H1 nor H2 (that opinion leaders of sports spectators tend to watch sports games frequently) is supported. This suggests two implications. Firstly, sports sponsorship targeting only Heavy Users who watch sport games frequently is not necessarily efficient. Secondly, sports sponsorship has different influences on different spectators.
This study deals with factors affecting the migration of J.League players. The purpose of this study is to describe the reasons why J.League players transfer to foreign football clubs. The data of this study were collected from Internet websites, magazines, newspapers, books that the players published, and statistical reports. In this study, 107 cases were gathered. First in this study, the history of the migration of Japanese football players during 1975-2003 is described and the numbers of cases and the destinations of the players are explained. The pattern of the migration is divided into three periods. The first period is from 1975 to 1992. This period was before the launching of the J.League. In Japan, there had not been any professional football players before 1986. Therefore, small numbers of migration, just 20 cases were found. The second period was from 1993 to 1997. In this period, J.League was started, however because the Japanese national team had never qualified for the World Cup, the reputation of Japanese players was not so high. The last period was after 1998. In this period, the Japanese national team could qualify for the France World Cup and Nakata, Hidetoshi succeeded in playing for the Italian club, 'Perugia'. In this period, the numbers of the migrations of the J.League players greatly increased. This study also shows some factors affecting the migration of the J.League players. The factors were divided into psychological factors, skill and adaptation factors, and socioinstitutional factors. Moreover, our findings regarding these factors support McGovern's paper of 2002.
The involvement construct has gained recognition as an important variable in explaining consumer behavior. It has also been receiving much attention as a segmentation variable in leisure and sport studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of involvement profiles in segmenting golf driving range users. IP(Involvement Profile) scale consisting of Importance, Pleasure, Risk consequence, Risk Probability, and Sign facets was used to assess the involvement profiles. Data were collected from a survey of 500 golfers who used a golf driving range in Aichiprefecture. A total of 434 usable questionnaires were processed for analysis. Major results include:(1) Factor analysis of the IP scales revealed 3 identifiable factors: ATTRACTION (Importance and Pleasure), RISK (Risk consequence and Risk probability) and SIGN. These data were consistent with those reported in other IP studies in leisure and sport literature.(2) Cluster analysis of IP factor scores resulted in four distinct involvement clusters (segments). MANOVA of the factor scores confirmed that the clusters were unique at involvement profile.(3) Statistically significant differences were found among the clusters in terms of length of participation, frequency of participation, handicap score, purpose of driving range use, experience of lesson attending, and subscription of golf magazine. These results suggest that distinct and meaningful target segments of golfers can be found using involvement profiles. The results also suggest that golfers' IP-based profiles can be differentiated on the basis of behavioral characteristics. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.
In golf, the direction of the hit ball just after impact is influenced by various motions. These are body rotational and tranlational motion, ball side spin, incidence angle of club head and so on. Especially, body motion influences the direction of the hit ball greatly. In this paper, we related the golfer's rotational and tranlational motion, in the golf swing to the direction of the hit ball just after impact by experiments and examined the relationship by non-linear distinction analysis. As results, we clarified the body motions that affected the direction of the hit ball. The results are as follows.(1) The direction of the hit ball toward the right is proportional to the angle around the x-axis and inversely proportional to the angle around the y-axis of the left fore arm at the impact point.(2) The direction of the hit ball toward the right is proportional the angle around the y-axis of shoulder at the impact point.(3) The direction of the hit ball toward the right is proportional to the angle to the front displacement of the shoulder.
Starting regular exercise is easy, but it is difficult to maintain. In fact, it is suggested that about 50% of those who start a regular exercise program will drop out within the first six months. The purpose of this study was to examine the exercise instructions which enhance an exerciser's motivation by using a focus group interview. Participants of this focus group interview were regular exercisers who had been maintaining regular exercise for more thanone year. The focus group session was tape-recorded and the tapes were transcribed. The transcripts were summarized in order to identify major categories. The results from this study provided positive feedback regarding perceived competence, the exercise environment in which autonomy is urged, and relatedness of construction of fitness facilities which were important exercise instructions which enhance an exerciser's motivation. Finally, exercise instructions which enhance an exerciser's motivation were considered based on Self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000).
In the U.K., the private fitness industry grew and expanded during 1990's. In the public fitness sector, there has been a tendency that public facility management has been contracted out by local governments to charitable organizations and private companies in order to implement a government partnership policy aimed at achieving the best value. The purpose of this paper is to examine recent trends in the public fitness sector, which is taking a significant role in the U.K. fitness industry. The following are the findings. Membership clubs are very common among U.K. public fitness clubs. Penetration of public clubs among the entire population was 4.2%, as of 2002. Combined with 5.7% held by private fitness clubs, total penetration is 9.9%. The three types of public sports/leisure facility managements are : 1)local government 2)charitable organizations and 3)private companies. Among public facilities, 79.8% are still operated by local governments, 11.6% by charitable organizations and, 5% by private companies. Fitness industry related certifications are now to be registered to match those of the National Vocational Qualification Scheme. Sports/Fitness Quality Management accreditation has now been introduced into the industry. Based on the current approved planning, the numbers of public fitness facilities is projected to increase by 17% and those of private facilities by 48%. Altogether a 35% increase, comprised of 2.2 million additional members, is expected, which will bring the total to 5.8 million, representing 13.3% of the entire present population. FIA U.K. is not positioning itself against the public fitness sector, but is recognizing the public as existing in a partnership and is accepting public clubs as members of the association, cooperating in various activities.