A traditional Japanese-style bow consists of wood and bamboo, whereas a modern Japanese-style bow consists of wood and carbon fiber. This modern Japanese-style bow is widely used for beginners and intermediate archers. The different materials, wood and carbon fiber, are glued together with an adhesive, and these materials occasionally come off, through utilization, over a long period of years. In this study, shear sliding stress arising at the interface between wood and carbon fiber in a Japanese-style bow is experimentally evaluated. First, Young’ s moduli E of wood and carbon fiber are measured by carrying out a loading test. Thereafter, a section of a Japanese-style bow consisting of wood and carbon fiber is transformed to a single material section with the measured values of E, using the transformed-section method. Next, the distribution of bending moment M along the Japanese-style bow is evaluated according to the bending stress σ measured by strain gages, and a shearing force diagram is obtained. As a result, it is shown that the maximum shearing force Vmax is caused at the lower end of a Japanese-style bow. Moreover, the shear sliding stress τ in the section of Vmax is analyzed. Consequently, it is confirmed that the value of τ at the inside interface between wood and carbon fiber is larger than that at the outside interface between those materials.
There have been some quantitative studies about the economic impact of professional sports teams on local regions, but there hasn’ t been any study in Japan that quantified the value, including the intangible or public goods value of a professional sports team, for a city. The objective of this paper was to estimate the money value, including intangible value, of a professional sports team for a city by using CVM (Contingent Valuation Method) and to find if the evaluation of the public goods aspect of a professional sport team by local residents has a positive effect on WTP (willingness to pay) . We selected the Japanese professional baseball team “A” and conducted CVM surveys in “B” city in which “A” team locates its home stadium. We estimated that the value of “A” team for “B” city is 141~341 million yen minimum, and 488~1,175 million yen maximum for a year and the present value as 2.4~5.9 billion yen minimum and 8.4~20.3 billion yen maximum. And we found that the evaluation of the public goods aspect of a professional sports team by local residents has a positive effect on WTP.
The purpose of this paper is to explain why the number of participants in the Tour de Okinawa has been increasing during the past twenty years, focusing on the supply-side. Previous research has mainly analyzed participants’ incentives and judgments about the event product’ s overall excellence from the demand-side perspective, which does not clearly explain the marketing effectiveness of the Tour de Okinawa. Because the Tour de Okinawa organizer was not a profit organization, its marketing activities confronted resource constraints that indicated we should consider the effects of the situation. Therefore, we focused upon the marketing activities and methods to overcome the resource constraints. The result shows that the organizer incorporated their organization as a nonprofit corporation, which stabilized their finances so that marketing mixes were improved. The improvement of the marketing mix was also aided by accumulated marketing know-how about the event, which occurred after hiring experts because of the financial stability. These activities by the organizer explain the reason why the number of participants in the event has been increasing.
Purpose : The purpose of the present study was to explore the perception of strength training among older adults who engaged in strength training. Methods : Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants aged 60-74 years who engaged in strength training in a sports facility. The questions of the interview included those regarding the mode of exercises they perceived as strength training, and perception about typical people engaged in strength training. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The three interviewers reviewed the transcripts and categorized the perceptions. Results : Nine categories of current perceptions of strength training were identified: structured exercises (n=15) , exercises for particular people (n=9) , exercises which those with positive outlook participated in (n=7) , easy exercises (n=6) , lifestyle activities (n=5) , exercises in which healthy people participated (n=5) exercises done in particular place (n=3) , vigorous-intensity exercises (n=2) , and unconcerned exercise (n=2) . Thirteen of participants mentioned the previous perceptions to strength training: unconcerned exercise (n=9) , exercises for particular people (n=7) , structured exercises (n=4) , vigorous-intensity exercises (n=3) , exercises done in particular place (n=1) , and others (n=4) . Discussions : These results indicate that some older adults who engaged in strength training perceived strength training as an easy and lifestyle-based exercise, and that the perceptions might have been changed in the process of behavioral change for strength training.
PURPOSE : The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between interests in leisure activity and motivational readiness for exercise behavior among those who did not intend to do exercise in the age group of 40-59 years. METHODS : The study was a longitudinal study, using an internet-based questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline (T1) and 8 weeks (T2) . The respondents were 536 adults in the pre-contemplation (PC) stage regarding stages of change for exercise behavior (aged 40-59) at T1, recruited from the registrants of a Japanese social research company. Among research items, the dependent variable was stages of change for exercise behavior at T2. Independent variables included interests in 29 leisure activities. Logistic regression analysis was conducted, adjusting for interests in other leisure activities, gender, age, and household income level. RESULTS : At T2, 26.7% (n=143) moved from PC to other stages. Interest in watching sports (OR=1.79 ; 95%CI : 1.12-2.86) and interest in shopping (OR=1.89 ; 95%CI : 1.15-3.09) were positively associated with the transition from PC to other stages. In contrast, negative relationship was observed between interest in amusement parks or theme parks (OR=0.32 ; 95%CI : 0.15-0.66) and the transition from PC to other stages. CONCLUSION : These results indicate that interests in watching sports and in shopping are positively associated with motivational readiness for exercise behavior among those in PC, though interests in some types of leisure activities (amusement parks and theme parks) are negatively associated.
The Local Authority Act of Japan was revised in September 2003 in order to reduce the costs and improve the quality of public services. As a result of the Act, all local authorities had to introduce CCT for public sports facilities by September 2006. The aim of this research was to clarify the change in the number of full-time employees in public sports facilities before and after the introduction of CCT. The pre-CCT data were collected in March 2005 and the post-CCT data were collected in September 2007. In total, 333 respondents in both 2005 and 2007 were asked to complete the questionnaire. The mean number of full-time employees was significantly higher after the introduction of CCT than before it.
Health Checkups and Health Guidance (HCHG) have been provided to insured individuals between the ages of 40 to 74 by health insurance providers from 2008. However, attendance percentage has not reached the target value yet. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with those who do not attend Health Checkups and the relation between non-attendance behavior and awareness of HCHG and metabolic syndrome, sociodemographics, regular exercise, and body composition in office workers or the self-employed. The 424 respondents were above the age of 40 (male : n=331, female : n=93, 49.1±5.6 years) and were obtained from the registrants of a Japanese social research company. The web-based questionnaire survey was conducted in February 2009. The study design was a cross-sectional survey using an internet questionnaire. χ2 analysis was utilized. As a result of this study, non- attendance behavior was shown to be significantly correlated with the office workers whose house- income is under 5,000,000 yen (χ2  =20.30, p<0.001) . For the self-employed, significant relations were found for men who do not attend Health Checkups (χ2  =3.83, p<0.05) and people who don’ t aware HCHG (χ2  =4.29, p<0.05) . This study shows that many self-employed men do not attend Health Checkups. Also, it suggests that this problem may have some relation with the awareness HCHG and attendance behavior. This further suggests that we need to consider promotion strategies for attendance behavior according to such factors as respondent’ s gender and occupation.
Exercise programs for urinary incontinence prevention in the frail elderly included the training of the pelvic floor muscles, which is difficult to recognize without touching the private parts of the person. The present authors found an easy way to facilitate voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles by relaxing the muscles of the gluteal region around the ischial tuberosity using a tennis ball put between the seat and hips. In this article, the authors report on the program for pelvic floor muscle training as well as its practical implications.
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the influence of service quality on booster club members’ continuance intentions in the bj-league. Data was obtained according to replies from 99 out of 1207 members during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons of the three teams who belonged to the bj-league. The service quality item was examined by referring to the previous work and preparatory investigations, and three factors and 19 items were extracted. When influence on continuance intention was seen, admission satisfaction and staff of service quality factor intention were influenced. Staff factor and admission satisfaction showed a significant difference when comparing the continuance intentions separately between a high continuance intention group and a low continuance intention group. In addition, when admission satisfaction was assumed to be an induced variable, the high continuance intention group influenced watching satisfaction and sense of belonging, and, on the other hand, the low continuance intention group influenced watching satisfaction.
This study examines how people view sports games by watching the Japan national football team’ s games on the tube. To this end, we analyzed the conversations of the TV viewers. Four people familiar with football participated in this study. Their appearances and conversations were closely monitored on videotape during the game (total time was 1h 33min 29s) . 1,543 utterance and 504 conversation units were obtained. The findings of the analysis of the record are summarized as follows : (1) Six types of opportunity for conversation units were recognized : 1)real-time play, 2)replay, 3)commentary, 4)play-by-play announcing, 5)information on the screen, and 6)others. (2) The 1,325 utterances were classified into nine categories. These were : 1)interjection, 2)evaluation, 3)confirmation, 4)reply, 5)prediction/analogy, 6)question, 7)interpretation, 8)information, and 9)instruction/cheer. The results suggest that 1) The participants watched well the game itself, and most of their conversations were started in the wake of events in real-time game, 2) The participants watched the game, hoping to understand the game itself. Regarding the production of sports broadcasts, consideration of the viewer’ s wants, in a similar way, might be required.