The purpose of this study was to clarify the effective leadership behavior of coaches in collegiate football clubs. Especially, the study investigated what leadership behaviors were effective for football players by examining the relationships between the Perceived Coaching Effectiveness (PCE) and the differences in coachs’ leadership behavior recognized by players. Participants were 648 collegiate football players participating in the Kyushu Collegiate Football League 1st Division, and 2nd Division. At first, the study developed a PM leadership scale for sports, and then it examined the reliability and the factorial validity by Cronbach’ s alpha and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). As a result, the scale was confirmed to have enough validity and reliability. Second, we examined the relationship between leadership behavior and PCE for each feature. For that purpose, leadership behavior was classified based on the average of P-function and M-function into four leadership types. A two-factor ANOVA was carried out with the dependent variable of PCE (whole PCE, Motivation PCE, Game Strategy PCE, Technique PCE, Character Building PCE) and with independent variables of the leadership behavior types and players features (position within the team, belonging league, school grade). The results indicated that PM type leadership behavior was the highest PCE in all cases. Also, in the results of the players’ grades and positions within the teams, there were no differences. On the other hand, there was a difference in the relationship between the leadership type and PCE in regard to the leagues to which the players belonged. Therefore, this study suggested that coaches need to have leadership behavior that is suited to players’ competition level.
Previous studies on athlete burnout have primarily focused on the negative aspects of burnout. These studies have described the theoretical burnout models and the elucidation of burnout pathogenesis. However, recently, several studies have explored the relationship between positive affect and burnout. We are trying to understand burnout according to the different views in order to acquire some important results and also to develop new methods for preventing burnout. In this study, we examined previous athlete burnout studies in order to provide basic information for developing new methods for preventing and coping with athlete burnout. In addition, in order to make a new theoretical model for contributing to developing new methods for preventing and coping with athlete burnout in sports fields, we aimed to categorize the results and topics in the previous athlete burnout studies.
This paper deals with the motion analysis of carving turns in snowboarding by the measurement of reaction force from snow surface. The measurement system of reaction force from snow surface is installed between the snowboard and bindings, and the system can measure the 6-axis force components from snow surface (force and moment) using the outputs of several 3-axis compact force sensors. We conducted the measurement experiment of carving turns performed by a high skill snowboarder. The results showed how the reaction force from snow surface varied from sec to sec. Furthermore, we compared the results of this study and the previous study and we calculated the moments of torsion and deflection of snowboard for denoting the important factors in carving turns. The results showed the differences of reaction forces according to the difference of the snowboarder’ s skill and the deflection moment of the snowboard for the unweighting and the adjustment of turn. The results can be used to clarify the mechanism of snowboard turns and to evaluate the snowboarder’ s skill.
Playing sports occupies an important place in the life of elementary school children. Community sport clubs can provide children with adequate opportunities to exercise. However, researchers have indicated certain problems faced by such clubs, due to their status of being volunteer associations. The present study investigated problems faced by community based junior sports clubs in Japan, from the perspective of coaches participating in these clubs as volunteers. An online survey was conducted with sports coaches who had experience in coaching team sports in community based junior sport clubs in Japan (N = 456). A questionnaire asked coaches about the type of sports they led (football, baseball, basketball, or volleyball), their confidence as a coach, and their shortcomings in different domains, including the lack of coaching skills, lack of event skills and lack of knowledge about child development, etc., as well as general shortcomings of coaches in these domains. Results indicated that many coaches felt they lacked coaching skills, athletic skills, and knowledge about child development. A multiple regression analysis indicated that training in coaching skills and event skills could enhance their confidence as coaches, and this was found to increase their improvement motivation. It is also suggested that there is a need to develop methods to develop skills of coaches, because many coaches are busy.
The purpose of this study was to verify the change in the growth rate and the industrial structure of the Japanese Gross Domestic Sport Product (GDSP) from 2002 in 2012. Nominal GDSP was 14 trillion 750.9 billion yen in 2002 and 11 trillion 408.5 billion yen in 2012. Real GDSP was 14 trillion 210.9 billion yen in 2002 and 12 trillion 495.6 billion yen in 2012. Nominal GDSP not including public gambling on sports was 8 trillion 673.9 billion yen in 2002 and 7 trillion 72.5 billion yen in 2012. Real GDSP not including public gambling on sports was 8 trillion 356.4 billion yen in 2002 and 7 trillion 746.4 billion yen in 2012. The growth rate of GDSP was -22.7% in nominal terms and -22.7% in real terms. That is, the growth rate of GDSP was negative in both nominal and real terms. The percentage of GDSP in GDP was 2.96 % in 2002 and 2.40% in 2012. The percentage of GDSP not including public gambling on sports in GDP was 1.74% in 2002 and 1.49% in 2012. The growth rate of GDSP was lower than that of GDP during 2002-2012.
Chelsea Pitch Owners plc (CPO) is a public limited company, the historical result of an effort to protect a financially struggling football club from urban developers hungry for the centrally located ground in London. In the process, ex-Chelsea FC owner Ken Bates invented the scheme, predicting that real estate developers would run away once they found out that CPO is mostly owned by loyal Chelsea supporters as well as the fact that company’ s shares had been scattered all over many places, and so no prospective purchasers could control a majority of shares. But the biggest obstacle was that they would have to give up the usage of the famous brand Chelsea FC in case they moved the stadium to the suburbs, far from the current one. This was the ultimate poison pill clause. Professional football clubs are by nature unstable financially because of heavy competition in the league, so gate revenue is critically important for them, though at some times they may enjoy rapidly increasing media rights revenue as well as sponsorship revenue (merchandising included). Surely gate revenue is invaluable because it is firmly supported by fans, whether a club wins or loses. At its core the sports industry is a live event business. In addition, event attendance correlates strongly with other sports fan behaviors, such as media usage. The problem is that increases in ticket sales inventory require large investments in new or renovated facilities. Therein lies the question of how a club can acquire substantial money without raising already expensive tickets or simply moving out of the crowded metropolitan London to the suburbs, far from the hometown and against supporters’ protests. CPO reminds us of how a stadium can be best used by any club. Judging from American experiences, we should look more closely for growth opportunities for gate revenue by using the venue for other events, such as concerts and other sporting events.
Purpose: Using a latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified unique segments based on physical activities (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) among senior adults with regular exercise habits. Methods: Self-administrated questionnaires were conducted in 2013 on a nationwide study sample of 911 adults over the age of 50 who regularly participated in short tennis (ST) activities. In the LCA model, six physical activities including ST and one sedentary behavior were used as manifest variables, as well as fitness level measured via subjective walking speed as a covariate. Attributes and Physical Activity Index etc. were examined using chi-square test. Results: Fitness level as a covariate was closely related to the results, and four distinct segments emerged (valid respondents : 643) : “RECREATION oriented” type (latent class prevalence : 55%), “WORK oriented” type (20%), “INACTIVE” type (16%), and “ACTIVE” type (9%). Both INACTIVE and WORK were characterized by fewer exercise habits, as well as fewer participants engaging in vigorous PA. INACTIVE was characterized by fewer participants across all the PA domains, as well as longer time in SB, and the amount of PA would have been insufficient without ST. Those in WORK maintained PA by moderate PA during work and ST. Both RECREATION and ACTIVE were characterized by better exercise habits, as well as shorter time in ST but more participants engaging in moderate PA during recreation. ACTIVE was characterized by more participants across all the PA domains. Conclusions: Multiple subgroups, exhibiting different participation patterns in PA and SB as well as ST, exist among senior ST players. The ratio above PA recommendation, share of ST in the total amount of PA, age, and occupational status were significantly different among these subgroups. Past exercise habits were closely related to different participation patterns, rather than the duration of ST participation.
Over the last decade, there has been an intensification of initiatives, and an increase in the number of organizations that focus on international development through sport. Also In Japan, Japanese government promote the international development initiatives through sports by starting Sports for Tomorrow. However, no systematic effort has been made to understand how these initiatives are implemented. The purpose of this paper is to explore the international development initiatives through sports carried out by all organizations based in Japan. We collected text data reporting on the international development through sports from website of each member of the Sport for Tomorrow consortium and analysed it through a content analysis. The authors find 16 forms of activities, these forms are classified based on the type of offerings made by these activities. Five forms are categorized as economic cooperation, five forms are categorized as material cooperration, and six forms are categorized as personnel cooperation. The results suggest that many organizations other than public institutions have implemented the international development through sports initiatives in accordance with their features or resources.
The aim of this study was to obtain findings that can be used in career development programs for top university athletes in Japan. For 24 top-level university wrestling athletes who graduated in March 2011 (mean age of 22.0±0.2 years at the time of first survey, with continuous years of athletic competition of 7.1±4.1 years), a survey was performed at 5 time times over a 4-year period. At each survey time the questionnaire consisted of items asking about actual career status and it used a scale for evaluating acquirement levels of life skills (LS). For all surveys, valid responses were received from 21 subjects (response rate 87.5%). Changes in career status were that, directly after graduation, nearly half of the respondents were in a state of being unable to obtain a position (regular employment 33.3%; non-regular employment 28.6%; part-time employment 38.1%), with a gradual increase in the number of persons who could obtain a position thereafter, and almost all persons were working 4 years after graduation (regular employment 80.1%; non-regular employment 14.2%) ; part-time employment 4.7%). LS levels achieved through sports competition during the university years were maintained over the four years after graduation. In addition, it was suggested that there is a positive relationship between LS levels and career status, determined by focusing on the top and bottom cases on the levels of the primary LS. This might show a positive relation to the competitive results such as “setting goals” , “thinking carefully” , and “always making one’ s best effort” , calculated from the results of all surveys. These results suggest that there is a possibility to support top university athletes in acquiring the primary LS during the university years and thereby to assist them in building and developing their careers.
We investigated the achievement situation after the entrance into the club of rookie players who belong to the Waseda University Association Football Club and those players who achieved excellent results in the Japanese university football league. We collected information about the situation of the hometown team in which a member grew up, the university entrance route, and the game appearances. The period covered in the investigation included a first term (1991-2000) and a latter period (2005-2014). 18 players with dominance of total hours of appearance in each year (until 1995, 16 players) were defined as the main force, and the production frequency of main force players was analyzed for every hometown team. In one season of registration, the number of cases where main force players were produced typically totaled one person and, at most, reached four. The results of the study showed that, among the 1,418 cases studied in the 20 years, among the 348 cases of admission based on recommendations, the number of those who became main force players was 230. The Club got many rookies from admissions based on recommendations and from admissions from affiliated strong schools and J-Youth high school football clubs. But although cases of entrance from affiliated schools were numerous, a problem was found that in the Waseda Football Club there was a low rate of these players becoming main force players. In the first term, members who entered on the basis of recommendations didn’ t play in the main force, and members who entered on the basis of affiliated school entrance and the general entrance admission played the active parts. On the other hand, in the latter period there were increased cases of entrance from private high schools and J-Youth Club, following the increase of the limit of students admitted to the university, and increased numbers of these players in the main force. The results showed that the number of the university-graduate J-Leaguers who join a J-Club is increasing in Japan, and that the cases in which universities with strong soccer teams get rookies from J-Youth Clubs and from high schools through the admission recommendation system is increasing, showing a change in the player acquisition method.