We investigated the ideal way to conduct the Home-Grown-Player (HGP) system. In this study we clarified the number of people enrolled in HGP, the time of participation, the training environment, and the area where participants grew up, to provide basic data for the J-League from the viewpoint of training young players in Japan. We investigated definition 1 (J-HGP1), which is a player who has been in the club for 3 years from age 15 to 21. In addition, J-League also separately defined players who have graduated from high school or university (J-HGP2). We calculated the contrast value of the HGP Ratio Value (HRV) as an indicator of the achievement of training. Also, in order to know the regional nature of HGP, clubs and development organizations were categorized by prefecture (J-HGP2 (prefecture)). The ratio of the number of HGP enrolled persons was 30% or more and the HRV was 1.00 or more. In J-HGP1, C. Osaka (1.33) was the only club in the J-League. This suggests that the young players who have been nurtured are being sent to clubs in Japan and overseas, and that a cycle in which changes in the generations of the players and renewal of their metabolism is emerging. In J-HGP2, the enrollment ratio and participation time ratio values were higher than those of J-HGP1. This indicates that players in the J-League are being brought up in the training environment of high schools and universities. This remarkably represents a characteristic of being a rare league in many worlds. Furthermore, in J-HGP2 (prefecture), there are 9 prefectures where the enrollment ratio exceeded 30%. The HRV of 1.00 or higher were found in the two metropolitan areas of Tokyo (1.12) and Chiba (1.04). It turns out that Japanese HGP is affected by the characteristics of the environment which is made up of many high schools and universities.
Although several studies have demonstrated a significant influence of destination image on behavioral intention of sport event participants, the comprehensive assessment of participant-based brand equity for a destination (PBBED) in the context of sport events participation has been limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of event satisfaction on destination awareness, destination image, and destination loyalty using the concept of PBBED. In this study, destination image was divided into four factors : (1) infrastructure, (2) attraction, (3) value, and (4) enjoyment. The data were collected from 282 runners who participated in the fun run, 5 km, or half-marathon events at the Ako city marathon in Hyogo, Japan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. Findings from the study offered three main theoretical contributions. First, event satisfaction directly influenced destination awareness. Second, destination awareness had positive effects on infrastructure, attraction, value, and enjoyment of destination image. Finally, enjoyment of destination image was an important determinant of destination loyalty. These findings suggest that event organizers should provide interactive tourism activities before, during, and after the sporting events to enhance destination loyalty. This study extends the literature on PBBED by providing a unique conceptual framework for sporting events.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the current situation in which youth teams in Europe are producing football players in strong teams and to explore the success model of the youth teams. The youth teams of the European top four major league division teams were examined, and as a result of calculating the contribution points based on the UEFA club ranking, the first place was Real Madrid youth, the second place was Barcelona Youth. Among the top 10 teams in total points, there were teams that showed high points even if they were not such strong teams. Also, although Manchester City Youth has produced many players, it did not differ much from other teams in regard to total points. In addition, there were teams that promoted many players in their top teams, like Athletic Bilbao Youth. Based on the above surveys, it was considered that the teams that successfully trained players could be classified into the following three major categories. ① Multi-player High Level Type, including Real Madrid youth and Barcelona youth, producing many players and operating at a high level. ② Self-Team Contribution Type, including Athletic Bilbao Youth, promoting many players to their own top team. ③ Release to Other Teams Type, including Manchester City Youth, producing numerous players who join other teams
The purpose of this study was to clarify support and barriers for female basketball players to become coaches, using the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) (Lent, et al., 1994). We questioned 165 female basketball players who played in the Women’s Japanese Basketball League (W league). We conducted a questionnaire survey which included demographic information and 12 contextual factors on coaching based on the SCCT (Watanabe, et al, 2016). The results showed that concern about lack of support had negative influence on interest in coaching, and that working status of coaches had negative influence on coaching self-efficacy. It is said that contextual factors such as working status and support influence career choice behavior, and we could find that the contextual factors influenced coaching self-efficacy and interest in coaching. It was suggested that it is necessary to improve the environment surrounding female coaches in order to raise female athletes’ interest in coaching and coaching self-efficacy. On the other hand, we could find that discrimination against females, which has been known as a barrier factor, influenced interest in coaching positively. This result showed that the participants grasped the status of female basketball coaches, and that they believed that they could overcome difficulties and become coaches. However, we could find that the experience of having been coached by female coaches influenced their choice of gender of role model. This result suggested that increasing the number of female basketball coaches can contribute to advancing female basketball athletes’ interest in coaching and coaching self-efficacy.
The purpose of this study was to identify the process and elements of decision-making for holding the pre-training camp for the Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic Winter Games in Korea. Pre-training camps were held in Japan prior to Pyeongchang 2018 Games. The target area was Bifuka-town in Hokkaido, which actively has promoted Freestyle skiing, Aerial skiing. Data were collected through semi-structural interviews with the National coaches in Canada, Swiss, Belarus, and Japan. A content analysis was conducted. The results revealed the process of decision-making continuum Desire, Association, Comparison & Examination, Action, and Re-visit. We also found the elements were Facilities and equipment, Regional factor, Practice and training condition, Daily-life condition, and Environment in host community. Compared to usual sport camps, Regional factors such as traveling gap and time differences were considered as unique in selecting the pre-training camp place.
Recently, sports sponsorship has been playing a more important role in corporate marketing activities. Sports sponsorship has been recognized widely as an effective tool, not only for improving corporate image, but also for contributing to revenue increase and recruitment activities of companies. Due to the economic development in emerging countries, not only companies in developed countries such as western European counties and Japan, but also local companies in South East Asia have started to utilize sports sponsorship as part of their means of communication to consumers. In those countries in South East Asia, there are various differences between Japanese and non-Japanese companies in regard to the process of sponsorship activities, ranging from acquiring rights to activation. This article highlights the differences in the process of sponsorship activities between Japanese and non-Japanese countries in the SEA GAMES, the largest multi-sports event in South East Asia.
This study aimed to clarify the factors that facilitate and disturb fair play among collegiate athletes, and to exploratorily examine the relationships among each of them. Text data on the factors facilitating and disturbing fair play for collegiate athletes were collected. Then, the data was organized, summarized and illustrated using the KJ method. Data from 137 participants (mean age = 18.49 ± 1.68 years) yielded 121 answers about fair play facilitating factors and 142 answers about fair play disturbing factors. Results show that seven large categories were obtained as the fair play facilitating factors, and six large categories were obtained as the fair play disturbing factors. As for facilitation factors, it was clarified that it was important to have compatible “fair play spirit” with “psychological factors to facilitate self-control”, and factors that are expected to be related to these two factors were identified. In addition, regarding disturbing factors of fair play, it was found that several disturbing factors have led to “psychological factors that disturb self-control.” In other words, it was suggested that unfair play was caused by the lack of self-control.