The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cognitive skill and concentration, based on brain waves measured before and after eSports activity. Participants were twenty male collegiate students belonging to an eSports club (Mean Age ± 21.40, SD = 1.65). At first, participants were put on a simple electroencephalograph (EEG) and their psychological state at rest was measured for 2 minutes. After that, Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) was conducted to measure their cognitive skill (execution function) before the eSports activity. In addition, after the eSports activity, SCWT was conducted again. In this study, the HAKARO series Stroop test (Digital Standard Co., Ltd.) was used to measure cognitive skill (execution function). To examine the degree of concentration during eSports activity, this study adopted a simple band-type EEG that only measures the Fp1 point as defined by the international 10-20 systems. In addition, for analyzing concentration, Sports KANSEI, which is a software for estimating the degree of concentration from the combination of raw EEG data, was used. As a result, this study indicated that cognitive skill (executive function) might be improved before and after eSports activity, and concentration might appear during eSports play. However, research on eSports is still in its accumulation stage in Japan, so further investigation might be necessary.
An extra-curricular activities reform was the key to rejuvenating the Shinagawa Junior and High School for Girls (hereafter “the School”), a private school in Tokyo, Japan, whose management has been revitalised through this reform process. The study was conducted by analysing data sourced from the School’s records, media articles, and interviews. The reform was implemented mainly in the following three areas: a) revised days and hours of extra-curricular activities ; b) build “Multi-tasking Program” enabling students to balance their hours better ; c) streamlined teachers working hours, roles and responsibilities based on extensive consultation ; While teachers remain primarily responsible for the extra-curricular activities at the school, changes in working shifts and hours improved clarity about what is expected of them. Additional external coaches were employed for the majority of the clubs. The reform resulted in better learning at the School, and consequently, increased the performance of the clubs, some of them winning national games, while the academic deviation score advanced by 20 points, from 33.0 in 1989 to 52.8 in 2018. The number of graduates proceeding to higher education increased from 50% in 1998 to 91.9% in 2018. The study suggests that three key actions made the School’s renewal possible: 1. Setting detailed and practical rules, as well as appropriate and easy ways to measure hourly performance. This has proved to be an important indicator over the 20 years of trial-and-error. 2. Having a support system for the students’ effective academic and extra-curricular schedules. Designing the academic year based on the “school biorhythm” and regular 1:1 teacher-student meetings helps students achieve an efficient “multi-tasking” learning process. 3. Higher emphasis on teachers’ working environment. Reducing not only their working hours, but also their psychological pressure, leading to increased effectiveness in their performance.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the total economic value and value structure of professional sports teams through the CVM approach. The results of the survey showed that the average of willingness to pay (WTP) was 587 yen, and the population of WTP was about 3.28 billion yen. From the weighting of use value and non-use value, the value as private goods was estimated to be 217 yen for WTP and the value as public goods was estimated at 316 yen. The results of this study have academic significance in that the professional sports teams quantitatively showed the values of public goods as well as private goods, while leaving certain problems in the model. In the future, it will be necessary to develop value categories that match the field of sports science, and the development of a scale for social benefits provided by professional sports teams will also be an issue.
The Chinese Baseball Association (CBA) established the China National Baseball League (CNBL) as the new top league to replace the Chinese Baseball League (CBL) in 2019. At the opening game in August, a strategic partnership agreement was signed between the Major League Baseball (MLB) and the CNBL. In this new league, four of the six teams who were affiliated with the former league of CBL participated, each team had a regular season of 18 games, and the playoffs between the top two teams were held in a best-of-five series. The former league CBL was established in 2002 by selecting top teams from existing local teams with the aim of strengthening the national team for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The domestic league matches and the overseas expeditions by the national team selected from each team have boosted the competitiveness of top-level players, resulting in victories over Taiwan, one of Asia’s powerhouses, in the Beijing Olympics and next year’s World Baseball Classic. However, the CBL was forced to reduce its scale after the Beijing Olympics, as baseball was dropped from the Olympics. After several season cancellations, the CBL eventually folded after the 2018 season. A national team has not shown any outstanding performances on the international stage since the 2009 WBC. Under such circumstances, the launch of the new league, the CNBL, was suddenly announced in 2019. The CBA has announced that it is positioning this league as a professional league. In this paper, we review the history of baseball in China and its research history. Then we examine the influence of sports policy in China on the management of the former top league and illustrate the current condition of the newly launched league, the CNBL, in 2019. This will show the direction of the sustainability of the new professional baseball league in China.
The basic motor skills of Japanese children today are not well developed. Therefore, each school is expected to incorporate new ideas and creativity, in collaboration with the local municipality’s board of education which plays a leading role in implementing appropriate measures to improve their physical fitness. This study examined the process of drafting and planning guidelines and policies carried out by school education supervisors of each municipality for the improvement of children’s physical fitness. Based on these findings, this study aimed to acquire the resource materials to help refine the measures taken to achieve improved physical fitness in children. A structured interview was conducted with six school education supervisors belonging to the physical education division of four prefectural boards of education. The responses of each supervisor indicated that it was necessary for the teaching staff of the school to understand the significance and importance of physical fitness for children. To this end, it was suggested that the expertise of school education supervisors was significant in providing guidance during school visits as well as the creation of an appropriate system by the board of education to facilitate these visits. In addition, there was an over-reliance on the Japanese new physical fitness test to measure the physical fitness evaluation index of children, across the boards of education. Therefore, it was inferred that the creation and introduction of a new index based in relation to the child’s eagerness and academic and physical strengths, is urgently needed for the future. The results also highlight the importance of collaboration between departments both within education boards and outside of them. Lastly, examining the practicing support policies for boards of education and their supervisors from various perspectives was shown to be significant for the construction of an optimal guidance/support structure to improve the physical fitness of children.
There is a hypothesis that the English Premier League clubs, whose broadcast rights are over 50% of their total revenue, fail to place importance on individual customers. At the same time, there is another hypothesis that Japanese League clubs, whose broadcast rights are limited - i.e. about 21 billion yen a year is divided among 55 clubs - should consider that individual customers are important with regard to their managerial judgement. This study analyzes football clubs' Mission Statements regarding who is targeted in order to create values or solve the problems they may have on a daily basis. Charters of 20 clubs of Premier League and Creeds of 55 clubs of Japanese League were investigated by utilizing a KH Coder, which is suitable for data analysis of words of Japanese and English. This contributed to the discovery of the fact that it is the Premier League, rather than the Japanese League, that uses a lot of words such as “supporter,” which refer to individual customers. Despite the fact that in the Premier League at least 10 billion yen per club is guaranteed from broadcast rights and revenue from individual customers is under 20% of total revenue, they share their will to promise supporters to provide values that meet their potential needs through mission statements such as Charters. This might be why very high average attendances are realized and an attractive market has been established. On the other hand, the Japanese League - about which it has been pointed out that “there is no awareness of customer's definition in Japanese professional sports management (Machida, 2016)”- should review and rebuild its mission statement by using appropriate words, such as those used by the Premier League. It is argued that this is one of the important factors which will influence the future development of Japanese football.
This study examines the cost-benefit of holding a sporting event by estimating the economic ripple effect brought to the hosting region through an input-output analysis using the Nara Marathon 2018 as a case study. Data on personal consumption expenditure by the participants, visitors, and related parties of the event, and the cost of holding the event are required in order to estimate the economic ripple effect of a sporting event. A web survey was conducted to collect data on the personal consumption expenditures of runners and their companions, and 2,278 valid replies were obtained. Regarding the cost of the event, the Nara Marathon Organizing Committee Office provided the “Nara Marathon Income and Expenses 2018” document. Data on personal consumption expenditures and the cost of holding the marathon were entered into the input-output analysis, and the economic ripple effect was estimated to be 1,166 million JPY in Nara Prefecture and 2,370 million JPY in Japan. In the Nara Marathon 2018, about 314 million JPY was invested as a holding cost, but the cost-benefit was 3.9 times larger in Nara Prefecture and about 7.9 times nationwide. Accordingly, the impact on the local economy created by holding the Nara Marathon 2018 was verified.
In recent years, various measuring instruments have been introduced in baseball fields, and various kinds of objective data can be collected immediately. However, the method of utilizing the data in the coaching field is still being searched for. In order to utilize objective data in the baseball coaching scene, it is necessary to examine the relations between various subjective aspects of players and coaches and the objective data. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the feeling of swinging a bat and swing speed, and to obtain a reference for coaching practice and future research. The subjects were five fielders belonging to the X Baseball Team. Subjective evaluation was performed using VAS on the feeling of swinging the bat during 20-23 days of practice. At the same time, the swing speed was measured. The correlation between the subjective evaluation of the feeling of swinging the bat and the swing speed was verified. As a result, no significant correlation was observed in all five subjects. It was suggested that there was no relationship between the feeling of swinging the bat and the swing speed.