This study analyzes dance performances of three cheering squads at Minamikaze High School (pseudonym) in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2018 to explore how those performances construct specific meanings regarding gender and sexuality. The analyses show that all three squads differentiate boys’ bodies from girls’ bodies through costumes and movements, albeit to different degrees. While girls’ bodies are expressed as cute and gorgeous, boys’ bodies are expressed as cool, swinging, powerful and agile, and have abilities to lead girls’ bodies. On the one hand, all three squads include movements by a (mostly boy-girl) pair and express intimacy between boys and girls through specific movements. On the other hand, while one squad expresses friendship between boys and girls, the other two squads construct heteronormativity that defines heterosexuality as the only acceptable form of sexuality in society. These meanings are assumed to affect sexual minority students in two ways. First, we assume that they refrain from participating in dance performances because of gender specific costumes such as pants for boys and skirts for girls. Second, we assume that they also refrain from participating in the two heteronormative dance performances, which do not fit expressions of their sexuality. The way to let sexual minority students participate in dance performances without any obstacles is to ensure opportunities for all students to study the diversity of gender identities and sexual orientations. Through such studying, all students can affirm their own gender identities and sexual orientations and respect others’. Given that the dance performances include few expressions that fit neither gendered bodies and costumes nor heteronormativity, an additional way is to provide students with assignments that let them create dance performances in which allow all the students participate regardless of their gender identities and sexual orientations, while enjoying.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how homophobia is constructed in school physical education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for 9 students who majored in physical education at A University of Education, and 5 students, three “sexual majority women” (cis-gendered, heterosexual) and two “sexual majority men” (cis-gendered, heterosexual), were selected for the analysis. The contents of interviews were about experiences what they had seen or heard discriminating words and actions in respect to sexuality.
The result showed that heterosexism is accepted by getting information through media and school life, and that the consciousness is strengthened through “joke about sexuality” in school life in general. It was assumed that the “joke about sexuality” performed by male athletes inside of school-based extracurricular sports clubs is a tool to feel their “status as 'men'” and to “bond” with other than the targeted person. In addition, it was considered that the coaches actively use “joke about sexuality” with the clear intention of “helping to smooth communication” and “constructing normative masculinity”. Furthermore, it was shown that misogyny is also constructed in school-based extracurricular sports clubs by prohibiting romantic love only for female athletes.
It was concluded that homophobia and misogyny are artfully created in school-based extracurricular sports clubs, and that homosociality is constructed including coaches in some cases. In this culture, students and athletes are expected that they learn the essentiality of homophobia in sports instruction and become teachers who convey it to the next generation through the mechanism of “occupational socialization into physical education teachers”. In the future research, it will be necessary to investigate in more detail how homophobia and misogyny appear in the two relationships between athletes each other, and, athletes and coaches.
Although Japan has become a super-aging society and the average life expectancy is increasing, the difference from healthy life expectancy is 3.5 years for women. I suffered from knee osteoarthritis, which is common in women, but now I am serious about physiotherapy, a habit that makes my trunk and joints move properly, and I am able to learn better movements than before. We believe that the practice of treatment for the past two months and the maintenance of the state of health to date are models of measures for a super-aging society. That is the importance of knowledge based on facts such as the cell life science that he has learned, the scientific background that created the difference between animals and humans, the mechanism of acquiring adaptive capacity of cells, and 'exercise is an approach to the body where our cells live' and is a new definition and practice of physical education. The origin of this idea is in the writings of practitioners and researchers of feminism and gender studies, 'Body and Ourselves' and 'The Posthuman'. Physical education requires the creation of a program that can be explained in words in science and that its rationality can be understood even through actual physical experience. For the first time, I believe that learners can use them in daily practice. This paper is the first step in redefining the 'life' that emerged on the earth and the person who lives that life from a gender perspective, and leading to the creation of a new human science fused with humanities.
Japan has become a super-aged society and the average life expectancy has been extended, however the disparity between healthy life expectancy to average expectancy is longer in women. Women are more likely to need nursing care due to osteoarthritis. Many women are forced to adopt a gender culture, such as wearing high heels to meet social demands, and the physical harm is more than male. Such a gendered body caused problems that affect the actual motion and form of the body. Health can include both sex and social and cultural gender differences. This article focuses on the physical aspects of health, and first mentions gender differences in health and medical care. Based on the physical gender differences in the background of biological gender differences, as a specific measure necessary to extend healthy life expectancy, with one of physical technique of Tai Chi including the theoretical background on the effectiveness. Move of the body consciously could be a key method of integrating the body and mind.