The study aimed to elucidate the thoughts of elderly people dwelling in communities in Japan and China toward death, and to discuss cultural features regarding long-term care support. A 12-item questionnaire survey was conducted with elderly Japanese and Chinese persons. The questionnaire comprised items regarding the participant’s attribution and view toward life and death. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0J for Windows. 117 Japanese and 87 Chinese people participated. In Japan, isolation of families within communities and the number of unattended deaths are expected to increase because single elderly people tend to live alone, separated from husband-wife households. Moreover, long-term care, especially a home-care service for the elderly, will become more important. In China, it appeared the current support system of home-care service was insufficient, as community-dwelling elderly take a self-help approach to maintaining their health.
The elderly people of both nations wanted to be allowed to die naturally, and their beliefs tended to be affected by cultural features and social settings. These results suggested that further social support for community-dwelling elderly is necessary.
Objective：The purpose of this research is to examine the process during which energetic mid-career nurses gain the ability to work energetically and to suggest an educational program for such nurses. Methods：A semi-structured interview was conducted with nine nurses in their 30s considered as energetic nurses by their superiors. The protocol data was qualitatively analyzed. Results：The results indicated that their ability to work energetically could be broken down into 14 categories：the starting point of their nursing career, support for their work and family life, ability to overcome a difficulty, awareness of associate expectation, spontaneous learning activities, recognition of their role as a mid-career nurse, vision for their future career, responsible and challenging participation in an organization, improvement of nursing proficiency, recognition of attractiveness and consciousness in nursing, reflective practice and enjoyment in nursing. These factors demonstrate how an educational program could be created for mid-career nurses in order that they too could work energetically.