Upon reviewing previous models for predicting regional development impact of transportation investment, the author shows that most of the notable models did not pay due attention to the concept of location rent, despite its potential usefulness and theoretical justification. The author presents interim results of a model currently being developed. In this model, location rent is considered to be a representative indicator of accessibility to various opportunities. On the basis of actural interregional flow data of commodities, location rent has been derived, and its consistency with the observed land value has been tested. The results are a partial success. The derived location rent has been confirmed as an explanatory variable of the land value. But, it has also been shown that agglomeration has an overwhelming impact on land value.
1. This paper aims at analyzing the characteristics of the demarcation line of the administration areas in Kroea by reviewing the history and background of how it was drawn and at the same time at exploring ways of correcting factors contributing to problems and ineffectiveness of administration. In order to collect data of opinions on this matter from officials actually assigned to the counties and their sub-level administration areas where administration is bifurcated in two separated blocks of areas, irrespective of the administrative efficiency and convenience of the populace in the areas, we selected eight kuns of this nature and sent questionaires to 488 chiefs and leading officials of kuns, myuns and villages. A total of 237 persons, 48.6% out of 488 responded. This data proved to be very expedient and instrumental in carrying out this study. 2. One of the characteristics of the demarcation line of administration areas is that it is drawn on the basis of natural conditions such as the extention of mountains, meandering lines of rivers, the formation of the community, traditional reasons, and so forth rather than on the theoretical as well as practical backgrounds imbued with administrative philosophy, which seeks for rational and balanced development of a whole community with two factors in mind: the principle of spatial division as an administrative skill and the principle of spatial harmony for balanced division of administration zones. However, it is true that a large number of local inhabitants have felt inconveniences due to the boundary lines being zigzag or meandering. When we surveyed on the frequency of going to market as an indicator of economic activities of the people living along the boundary lines, it is found that almost 77.6% of the people questioned answered that they were going to markets located in the neighboring kun rather than those in their own administration zonen. The factors that lead to choosing markets are usually two: one is spatial distance and the other is the peoples norm of life. Although the nature of the responses may vary according to where people live within the divided block of the administration area, a total of 86.6% of the questioned expressed their hope that the boundary lines would be straigthened. This reflects their wishes of improving the efficiency of local administration and convenience of living for effectiveness of the administration control. For example, state boundary lines of the U. S and Australia belong to the theoretical type whereas sung boundary lines of China and kun (county) demarcation lines of Korea belong to the natural condition (or setting) type. Especially, some of administration demarcation lines of Korea have been zigzag so that one kun is divided into two or more separate blocks of areas as the result of city administration areas within the kun becoming enlarged. There are eight cases of this nature in Korea. 3. Our survey which was conducted to discover in part the extent of awareness of such bifurcation or division by the inhabitants living in the divided zones, showed that only 83.4% of those who responded said that they had known the fact and the remaining 15.5% were quite unaware of the fact until they came to realize it upon reading our questionaire. This extent of unawareness means that local ranking administration leaders did not pay much attention to the effect of the local administration with respect to the boundary lines. 4. Speaking from the above finding, we are to propose that irrational factors related to the present administration demareation lines be corrected and improved for the following reasons: 1) To enhance the efficiency of administration, 2) To reestablish the system of utilization of resources,
In this paper we propose a comprehensive method to evaluate alternative projects in transportation network planning. This method has three stages. (1) Analytical description of regional structure, describing the spatial distribution of commercial, industrial and residential activities using factor analysis and cluster analysis. (2) Estimation of accessibility, of each zone using Hansen's concept of accessibility. (3) Evaluation, by calculating the utility of locating activities in each zone before and after transportation network improvement, using the utility function approach. Using this three-stage method, useful insights can be obtained about the general effects of alternative network improvement projects. The method was used on a regional transportation network planning problem and the reliability of the method was examined.
1) Objective The task that to which higher priority should be given, the improvement of the productive social over-head capital. e. g., transport facilities, etc., or the non-productive one useful for regional living-environment, e. g., sewerage systems, etc., will be one of the most important topics in recent regional policies. As for constituents of the non-productive social over-head capital, there are environmental sanitation (sewerage system, etc.), public rental housing, health and welfare (hospital, etc.), and education (school requisites, etc.). These form the ‘regional living-environmental facilities for permanent settlement’. We intend to construct a synthesized model which has the efficacy and ability to investigate consistently the efficiency and priority of public investments to various facilities such as proposed 5 future new trunk railway lines, proposed future national trunk expressway systems, branch expressways, ordinal trunk highways, local airports and harbors, which are competitive and mutually alternatives, and are planned over a more lengthy period than the planning horizon of the Third National Land Comprehensive Development Planning. To cope with such a task, it is urgent and indispensable requisite to develop a general model which can manage ‘goods traffic’ and ‘passenger traffic’ concurrently. All the models hitherto, e. g., our interregional input-output programming model also had not this concurrently built procedure. The reason is that transport facilities such as expressways, highways, ordinal railways are under the mixed utilization of goods traffic and passenger traffic. 2) Pedigree of this model This paper is an extension of “Optimal allocation of public investment using interregional input-output programming model” [H. Kohno (1975)] which was based partly on the Moses's model (1960) and Lefeber model (1958). 3) Development of several sub-models to meet conprehensive valuation We have this time, developed several sub-models to meet the comprehensive valuation of social benefits due to the allocation of public investments. These are shown under the itemized sub-titles: (1) Establishment of passenger travel-consumption activities and its incorporation into input-output programming model, (2) Generalization of objective function of GNP to the maximization of social benefits incorporating the rate of valuation as to the travel service and improvement of social overhead capital based on the multi-attributed utility function, (3) Setting up of alternative mixed combinations of ordinal railway passenger service of any link and new trunk railway passenger service of any link, for each type of route, (4) Systemization of row vector of transport service sector in order to make parametric computation easy, (5) Establishment of activities of living emvironmental social overhead capital service, and (6) Estimation of ‘necessary volumes of living-environmental social overhead capital-shipments of industrial and living activity’ coefficient matrix. Incorporating above six developed ideas into the base model [Kohno (1975)], we have constructed a synthesized programming model to meet our objective. The computational results of this model are omitted, due to space restriction.
For making plans of preventing the road traffic pollution, it is required to evaluate the current state of the environment from the viewpoint of residents. The study aims to construct a comprehensive evaluation method to cope with this requirement. The method utilizes the framework of systems analysis. The total value for the comprehensive evaluation, V0, is estimated (V0 denotes the estimated value) by the following equation of linear combinational form, _??=_??_WiVi where, Vi and Wi denote the evaluation values and the relative weight of individual item i of environmental quality, respectively. The major characteristic of the method is in utilizing the following two techniques to measure the residential consciousness and opinions about their environment. First, we estimate a value of the residents for each item, Vi, by conducting group surveys. Second, we estimate a relative weight for each item, Wi, by employing computer-aided Delphi conferences, utilizing the Group Analyzer System of the NIES, which is a computer-aided voting system. The uniqueness of the method lies in its approach of measuring residential consciousness and opinions not by usual questionaire sheet surveys but by citizen participated conferences. This method was examined by conducting a case study at road side area of Tsukuba Science City in late 1979. The study area is located in the central residential district of Tsukuba Science City. From this district two housing blocks were chosen for the comparison of the road side environments. One block faces a main road, Higashi-odori Boulevard (block 1), and the other is about two hundred meters from the boulevard (block 2). Each block is about four and a half hectares in areas. We selected not only such physical items as exhaust gas or noise by car, but also socio-economic items. The selected eleven items are grouped into four categories of safety, health, convenience and comfort. In order to measure the values of Vi and Wi of equation (1), four experimental conferences were held at the NIES. First two conferences were. participated by the housewives of the housing block 1 and 2, respectively. The other two conferences were held by the groups of university students (the University of Tsukuba), which were chosen as reference groups. The number of participants of each conference was 23 to 25. The major results of this study are summarized as follows. 1) Similarity of the measured values of Vi's of two reference groups was verified by chi-square tests. It is concluded that our procedure is not biased and is suitable to acquire stable values of Vi's from small groups which are sampled from a population. 2) As was expected, on the other hand, the values of Vi's between the residential groups and the reference groups were different. Furthermore, the values of Vi's of the residents of the two housing blocks differed in several items. We concluded that it was impossible to replace Vi's of the residents of particular areas by those of non-residential people. 3) The values of Wi differed according to the housing blocks and reasonably reflects the state of their present living environment. 4) In the computer-aided Delphi conferences for measuring the values of Wi, it took at most two iterations to acquire consistent values of Wi in the cases of the students' groups, and longer iterations for the housewives' groups. The total response time of each conference was found to be short enough for the practical use of this method.
Recently water resocues management planning is not only the physical treatment of water but also includes the various elements concerning to human environment such as the regional safety from the damage of flood, the necessity in water use, the pleasantness in the problem of water quarity and smell, and the mental substantiality in recreation planning or conservation of spectacular sight. Therefore when we discuss the problem of water resouces management we should totally evaluate the water resources considering its variety. In this paper we shall take flood protection, water use, water quarity control in Chitose river basin, which are the main elements of water resources management, and introduce evaluating indexes as follows 1) annual expected flood damage per capita 2) danger index 3) gap per capita between supply and demand of water 4) balance of supply and demand of water 5) achievement degree of water quality criteria And we shall regard the water resources management as the regional and purposewise distribution of public goods, and using the above indexes consider the total evaluation and its direction of river basin development.
This paper is a research of the cities of which population has remarkably increased since the World War II was over, especially since the time that the Japanese Economy had greatly developed, by analizing the characteristics of these cities and their fiscal policies in the point of the supply of the public goods and services.
The purpose of this paper is to find the characteristics of optimal public investment process under regional development speed constraints in growing and non-growing regions. First, the study defines regional development speed as the first derivatives of stock of facilities (X) with respect to time t. The desirable development process is, then, formulated in terms of development speed (_??_t) under speed constraints (G(_??_, X)_??_O) by regional collectivities, i.e., regional government, residents, and industries. Secondly, the paper discusses the optimal process of development with two public facilities (productive and living) and one private capital in a closed, non-growing region. It is shown that conventional welfare maximization process inevitably leads to unbalanced growth during development process. The desirable process under speed constraints is, however, the balanced growth of two public facilities with a constant ratio. Thirdly an optimal process in an open, growing region with a Cobb-Douglas production function is examined. The study shows that the optimal process in a population increasing stage is a balanced growth of public facilities so as to maintain percapita level which mainly depends on speed constraints.
The authors have been studying on various regional planning problems which relate to civil engineering by means of systems analysis. Based on those studies in this paper the process of systems analysis of regional planning problem is defined as a process-system which has four different processes such as; (1) the process to make clear and identify the contents of planning problem, (2) the process to formulate necessary models for analysis of the structure of planning problem and to make effective information abridged through analysis aiming to identify the structure of planning problem, (3) the process to formulate system model for evaluation and integration to analize planning problem and to abridge as planning information, (4) the process to evaluate alternative plans and to select the most desirable plan, Also a cyclic procedure is defined for practical applciation to attain object of analizing the planning problem effectively. Based on these discussions several types of analysis and contemporary themes of regional planning problem related to civil engineering are reffered from the view point of systems analysis and several examples associating with them are shown as follows: The first example is the study on a methodology to establish the basic information about the social, economical and special structure of metropolitan district through systems analysis method. In this study persontrip flow, car traffic flow and commodity flow in the metropolitan district are analized by means of statistical method such as principal component technique at one cross section of time. And personal movement during a year among different regions and within metropolitan region are also analized by the various statistical method using behavior science approach. The second example is the study on the systems analysis of facility planning problem for flood control, and in this study two different approaches are implemented to each process (or phase) of systems analysis of planning problem. The first of them is for the process (2) stated above: The system simulation model of water flow of flood considering relations among the volume of water over-flowed, the types and scales of various facilities and the amount of damages by over-flowed water, then various kinds of experiment are designed and implemented using the simulation model. And a lot of output-data are analized by statistical methods to abrige them into effective information to the formulation of the system model for evaluation and integration to analize the planning problem. The second of them is for the process (3) stated above: Based on the abrdiged information given by the former process, the planning model is formulated as the system model for evaluation and integration to analize this planning problem. In this stage planning model is formulated as the min-max planning model using the linear programming, and various output-data of parametric analysis using planning model formulated before are abridged as effective planning information for the facility planning.
In the process of urban development, excessive concentration of population and industry causes water demand-supply gap, and areal potential of water supply cannot cover its deficit satisfactorily. Then, water demand has been an important subject of urban administration as many aimes at “smaller water demand city”. For decreasing water demand at city level, two way of policies may be nominated as follows, i) to decrease number of households and establishments, ii) to decrease amount of personal water use. The former needs re-examination of urban design such as land use and population planning, and the latter requires consideration of water use elastisity, i.e. how different ways of using takes what water amount difference in household and establishment level. In other words, the latter problem requires structure analysis for those level water demand system. This study investigates the latter problem especially for domestic water demand. To analyze this matter, we make an assumption that personal water use is prescribed in outline by belonging type of household. That is to say, structure analysis means clarifications both the types of household and the personal water use patterns comprised in that type. In order to get household level data, we carried questionnaire survey out in A-city. Going into details, our approach consists of following five steps, 1) making groups of factors which impact water use in household level, 2) extraction of representatives from factor groups, 3) pattern making with question-categories of representatives, 4) sample grouping with patterns, and 5) exammination of water amount in each sample group. At the last step, we define the water use elastisity as difference of sample water amount in same group. After emperical study in A-city, we found some results as below, i) household members and possession of flush toilet are key factors in structuring types of household about water demand, ii) comparing elastisities among groups, possession of flush toilet tends to lower water demand. As these results imply directly, it may be sufficient for management of water demand system to inquire into a few factors. And a more important matter is that such factors are closely related to urban design, since factors are included in planning parameters. Then we are sure that our approach has a worth to extract such an important factor logically.
The paper focuses on linking refuse (combustible solid waste) from household consumption activities to consumer behaviour and to the municipal delivery of refuse collection services. The theoretical framework used in conceptualizing the refuse disposal process and its relationship to household consumption behaviour is based on Lancaster-Muth-Becker's new approach to consumer theory. Within the framework, a household behaviour with respect to consumption activities and associated refuse is described as a utility maximization problem. The objective is a utility function over the characteristic space, where the major characteristic yielded by household's refuse disposal activity is assumed to be the cleanliness of private space. Constraints include: three sets of technological relations linking goods purchased, refuse disposed, and the characteristics produced through a collection of consumption activities, residential environment of household, and the type of municipal collection services; a budget constraint which incorporates the alternative municipal financing of service, general revenue financing and pricing of refuse; and the public production of collection service which is a function of the total amount of refuse and of tax to be collected. Data required for the estimation of technological relations were secured through survey questionaires with the random sample of 1000 households, conducted in the eight municipalities of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region during Nov. 25-Dec. 1 of 1979. These eight municipalities employ different collection services in terms of frequency of service (twice a week and thrice a week) and of site of collection (backyard and curbside). Data on residential environments of surveyee were obtained through observations of sites, pictures, and maps. Due to the difficulty of integrating the residential environmental quality into a few indices, we categorized via the use of “Hayashi's Quantification Theory” the residential environments of surveyee into five homogeneous environments. In each categorized environment, linear stochastic forms of technological relations were estimated using ordinary least squares procedures. The empirical results were utilized to evaluate the alternative municipal policies concerning the financing of collection service. The results show that the pricing scheme is preferred to customary method of general revenue financing. For the former exerts not only an income effect but also a substitution effect upon households' refuse production, while the latter exerts only an income effect.
The purpose of this paper is to survey the contributions that have been made by Japanese to the theory and empirical study of regional science in the last nearly one decade since the preceding survey, “The Regianal Science in Japan: A Survey”, was written by one of the authors. The intention is to elucidate the the oretical structure of each article, especially its original contribution and meaningfulness, in a self-evolutional intrinsic process of the contributions, not to offer a bird's-eye survey. We have accordingly restricted ourselves to the theoretical literature appeared in Studies in Regional Science of Japan Section, Papers and Proceedings of the Pacific Regional Science Conference of the RSA, Papers of the RSA, Journal of Regional Science, and so on.