This paper discusses the problem how the hierarchical supply system of local public services is evaluated from a viewpoint of efficiency. To focus on this point, it is assumed here that all individuals and all regions are homogeneous except for the difference in the number of the lower-ranking regions which each higher-ranking region has. As a result, we find the following; the above region specific factor makes impossible that the externality of migration in the region experiencing out-migration is canceled out by one in the region experiencing in-migration. It implies that under this system, the pareto-optimal population allocation cannot be attained through free migration, without some policy interventions of a central government. Finally, we define the pareto-optimal intergovernmental transfer policy by a central government and elucidate its properties.
This paper deals with land use transition in built-up area, and in such area dynamic aspects are quite important to description of land use transition. About fifty years ago, Burgess and Hoyt described land use pattern of a city dynamically through their empilical studies, and now it seems that we don't have succeeded in description of land use transition in built-up area theoretically yet. This paper, therefor, is willing to contribute for dynamic theory of land use. Dynamic aspects can be given by “delay” of land use change in built-up area. “Delay” means the difference between static eqilibrium and real land use after equilibrium conditions are changed because of the growth or the destination of a city. “Delay” is mainly caused by supply-side of land. In this paper we consider about two factors as the cause of “delay”, one is the existance of former building and another is the existance of former tenant on a site. First, we offer the single site land use transition model, which shows the optimum programm of land use for the owner of that site. He is assumed to maximise the sum of rents towards future, and would like to get a new tenant who pays the highest rent in every year. In this model the cost of land use alteration is defined, which causes “delay” of land use change. A land owner must pay this cost when be alters land use of a site. This cost consists of monetary and non-monetary factors, and one is the former building value which is lost by land use alteration, and another is the compensation for removal to former tenant. The compensation cost is determined in the relation between the three factors. That is; * the land owner's profit on land use alteration within a time limit of occupation of former tenant. A time limit is usually decided by legal or conventional conditions. In Japan, tenants are under so strong protection that time limits tend to be delayed beyond initial contracts. * the maximum compensation a land owner has motivations to alter land use. * the former tenant's cost of removal. Solving the single site model, we get the optimum time to alter land use, and this shows how land use change is delayed. Finally, we show the city's inefficiency caused by “delay” of land use change, by using of the single city model.
Owing to the big change of urban, social, and economic structure after the oil-shock, the relation between the behavior of industrial location and integrated urban functions has caused public discussion in Japan. This report is a study for the behavior of industrial location depending on the said discussion on the nation-wide basis. Urban-type industries occupied the main parts of Japanese industries and which will grow as a vanguard of industrial development. These industries have the characteristics showing high labour productivity, high capital equipment ratio, and high-technology oriented. These industries are concentrating in three big cities, especially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo and its surrounding area. And recently, these industries concentration has also advanced in the core-cities of local area. Industries of our country will grow up with urban-growth. Thence comprehensive development and improvement of attractive local cities will build up a necessary condition of new industrial location.
1. Korea is also known as a land of castles, since it used to have a large number of castles in it, though many of which remain now simply as castle sites. A castle may be characterized as a place where inhabjtants around it gathered inside of it, in an emerrency, bringing food and necessities along and defended it under the leadershin of its lord. A traditional Korea castle had to have its circular and extending walls in order to accommodate its people. In this resnect, the Korean castle is similar to the Chinese one but different from the Japanese castle. 2. This paper has explored tendencies in castle building during the three periods in Korean history: the Three Kingdom Period (57BC-AB917), the Koryo Feriod (919-1391) and the Yi-dynasty Period (1392-1910). One of the main reasons for castle building in Korea was that Korea had to withstand offensives of its neighboring countries. Since it was situated in a geopolitical position in which it was easily suscentible to such attacks. Some of the castles built for this defending purpose, are still extent in various parts of the Korean Teninsular, rather intact; others remain in the ruins of their former castle sites, still rich in historical events and legendary tales. 3. The Chinese city originated from a castle, the Japanese lowertown of a castle and the Korean townshin descended from a castle-all these have become the foundations of the later develonment of city community. When 139 townshins in Korea are investigated for their origin of develop ent, it is found that mast of them have been developed from their ancient castles. We may enumerate the following characteristics of important functions that the castle has played through the history; First, the function of regional community center formation; Second, the function of expanding the radius of communication and circulation activities; third, the functions of city formation; and finally, the function of formenting lengadary tales. 4. More often than not, the castle, the edifice of the past, doesn't have a practical value of Utilization nowdays. However, the castle may, due to its inherent historic foundations and ties, privide its people living around it, with a sense of serene sentimental values and historical ties, and may play a role of strengthening a sense of integrity among its people, pointing at a direction imbued with philosonhy for future community formation.
This study is considered about the system of effects from view of natural and socio-economic enviroment, separating into two effects which are under construction and after completing, especially on the method of measuring the effects to socio-economic enviroment. Having the examle of A-reclamation project, we measured the effects giving to agricultural production and fishery products, then investigated the effects of the regional economic around the reclaimed land by these. And we made a system dynamics model to measure the effects of the regional economic. Our solution from this measuring is following: the regional economic around the reclaimed land has the possibility of greater growth, by the increment of the agricultual products of the reclaimed land and around, nevertheless there is decreasing from the fishery products of Lake B and Lake C because of freshenization of two lakes. Also, we have consideration that the method mensioned about is applicable to other reclamation projects.
The housing probrem has already converted from simple quantitative problems to qualitative problems which aim to create comfortable residential area. The environmental conditions between development area and its surrounding area become important factor for the planning process. The environment-oriented residential area development planning aimes at regional environment harmony under the development. Although we can find several confrontations among the interests groups connected with the development planning. The object of this paper is to examine the principle of the adjustment of the confrontation among the interests groups concerned with residential area development planning which is strictly subjected to environmental conditions. Especially, the confrontation between the economic efficiency and the environmental conservation has been studied with the Conflict-Management Model. A method of evaluating the harmonic degree between economy and environment is named “Conflict-Management Model of Development of Residential Area”. The frame of the model shows the states of conflicts among the interests groups who would like to maximize their own benefits. Namely, in this model, each interests groups enable to introduce his request by negotiating with a planner (developer). Therefore, “Operative Simulation Model” is built to get a more concrete answers. In this model, the optimum solution about the conflict of the interests groups will gain by the maximum value of the sum of cost-benefit ratios of theirs. In this paper, the profit of developer is examined as a representative value of cost-benefit ratio. To put it more concretely, that conflict are adjust in the process of purchasing development lot, confering with municipality, confering with inhabitants and so on. The change of the ratio of the profits (A: confering with municipality (γ=7%), B: confering with inhabitants (γ=7%), C: confering with inhabitants (γ=5.5%, 7%, 8%)) are simulated using the Model. It was found that the most important factores which determins ratio of the profits in the Model are the rate of interest and the selling price of housing lost. More, the maximum rate of the profits was recognized on the 3 to 5 iterations, and it was independent of the rate of interest. It is concluded from the results of simulation that the Conflict-Management Model is useful to examine the optimal process of development of the suburban residential area under environmental conditions.
This study analyzes the relationship between urbanization in the Tokyo metropolitan areas and the destruction of nearby forests. The factors contributing to urbanization and the destruction of forests are multi-dimensional, including the natural, economic, and social elements. A multivariate analysis was made on the structure of these factors, principal components were calculated, and the forces working to destroy forests in the respective areas were determined. In the metropolitan areas, farmland is appropriated as the first step in land use. Agricultural land lying adjacent to town areas are most readily urbanized, and flat ground can be developed easily. As a second step, following the use of farm land, forests are cut down for land use. The third step is large-scale appropriation and development of forests with a relatively low land cost, and the building of new town areas. Even with land cost rise, areas on a steep slope, forests on a steep slope or around temples and shrines are left untouched. Forests are the sole fort or defense line for preserving greenery in the metropolita areas. The avoidance of housing construction in areas with complex, irregular geographical features is aiding the conservation of forests. Purchasing forests with public funds in such areas is effective as well. It is appropriate to group forests (according to areas) and to consider measures and policies for preserving them in group units. Forests that still remain within urban areas ought to be purchased according to a specific plan, and must be secured as shelters or places for evacuation in times of disaster. Under present conditions, the Tokyo metropolitan area will become a district most vulnerable to the danger of various disasters.
The purpose of this paper is to study the behaviour of regional income-especially, the movement of regional inequality and the stability of regional development-in Japan. With regard to regional income, we use two kinds of annual data on per capita regional income: per capita prefectural income and personal income, for the 1955-76 period. The behaviour of regional income can be analysed in terms of income differential and growth rate differential. The framework formulated by Leo H. Klaassen in “Regional Dynamics”, classifies areas into four stages depending on their income level and growth rate. A region at any time belongs to one of the following stages; (1) presperous area (both income level and growth rate are above the national average), (2) stagnant area (income level is above the national average but growth rate is below it), (3) development area (both income level and growth rate are below the national average), (4) potentially prosperous area (income level is below the national average but growth rate is above it). It is hypothesized by Klaassen that regions would move sequentially from one stage to another in the direction such as (1)→(2)→(3)→(4)→(1). The cyclical behaviours of regional income are as follows. The move from (1) to (2) occurred in the urban and highincome prefectures. A large number of prefectures, which are mostly in the peripheral regions, moved from (3) to (4), becoming from development areas to potentially prosperous ones, and many of them experienced the reverse move like (3)→(4)→(3). The prefectures near the centre (both national averages) shifted many stages in the expected direction. About 70 percent of all moves are clockwise and support the hypothesis. In this sense the movements were stable. So, we may conclude that, in general, regional development before the oil crisis was quite stable and the equalization of regional income was dominant.
In this paper a simulation model is developed, which estimates landuse of meshes in a linear (open and narrow) area along the main route in F-shi. This model directly describes landuse (pattern) with landuse potential. In this point it differs from other landuse model. The principal concept of this model is landuse pattern and landuse potential. The landuse pattern are groups composed of meshes which are grouped with landuse area ratio by quantification theory III, and the landuse pattern are arranged in turn. Estimation of landuse is described by change of these landuse pattern. The landuse potential is composed of quantitative factors and qualitative factors as traffic condition, hinterland condition, distance, and legal condition, landuse pattern, neighborhood condition, topographical condition, and calculated with two stages. In first stage a synthesis factor with quantitative factors is calculated by principal component analysis and a synthesis factor with qualitative factors is calculated by quantification theory III. In second stage landuse potential is caluculated by these synthesis factors and distance. The validation of this model is checked by comparison with actual landuse pattern and estimated landuse pattern in model. Consquently, it is sure that this model is useful to get basic information for landuse planning.
This short paper intends to revise the argument in section 5 of the author's former paper  so that it will facilitate an empirical analysis of the effects of transportation system change along the line of a household production function approach.
In this paper, the methods of determining the optimum modal split between the mass transit and the car of passenger transport in a model city having ring and radial grid networks and in the transportation networks of an actual city are developed. The optimum modal split in the model city gives the least total transport cost on the condition of the environmental standards and the capacity of the mass transportation. The total transport cost consists of the total transport time cost and the construction and operation cost for the mass transportation and the car traffic and is a function of the modal split, too. This method is applied to the planning of the passengers transportation in Nagoya Region. As a result the optimum modal split in Nagoya Region is found to be 70 percent for the mass transportation and 30 percent for the car traffic. The method of determining the optimum modal split between the mass transit and the car of passenger transportation in the actual city gives the least total transport cost on the condition of the capacity of the transportation. The total transportation cost consists of the same items as the above case. It is necessary to forecast transport demands of many functional alternative networks and to evaluate them in order to determine the optimum modal split in the optimum network, in the future. Relative to this, following three iterative methods are developed: a) the binary search method where links are increased and decreased according to their importances; b) the incremental method which adds the most necessary links step by step; c) the decremental method which takes off useless links. We can obtain the optimum network by using these iterative methods. The method c) is found to be most useful by applying these methods to some cases. A combined model of trip distribution, modal split and traffic assignment is applied to forecasting transport demands. Transport demands are forecasted whenever the networks change. The transportation networks consist of car link, mass transit link, and park-and-ride system. Finally after the usefulness of the combined model is proved in Nagoya City, these useful methods are applied in determining the optimum railway network and the optimal modal split of the transportation network in Nagoya City in 1980.
During the periods of high economic growth, outmigration from agricultural and mountain villages to urban areas increased rapidly. As a result overpopulation in the urban areas and depopulation in rural areas have become social problems. The rural areas play a very important role particularly in supplying food, conserving national land, cultivating the head sources of a stream and conserving the natural environment. However, it has become difficult to manage the community and these areas have not been able to play the abovementioned roles in depopulated areas. Therefore, the Japanese government has taken a number of measures to promote rural areas and alleviate some of the problems. In this paper the depopulation problem is considered from the viewpoint of local finance. Attention is paid particularly to the role of intergovernmental grants. Firstly, using a concept of local public goods, the inefficiency which results from free migration is considered. If in moving from one region to another a migrant does not account for the effect of his moving on the tax price of the public good of residents in the region he leaves or enters, Tiebout type of decentralized free market equilibria may not be Pareto-efficient. And if this externality is not internalized by centralized decision-making, the one region may be overpopulated and the other underpopulated. In the framework of a simple model the source of inefficiency of resource allocation is shown. Using the same model the analysis is extended to consider the role for intergovernmental grants in the face of such inefficiencies. And it is suggested that the central government may be justified in using a system of intergovernmental grants to overcome these inefficiencies. In order to explore the role of intergovernmental grants, the model is applied to Agatsuma district of Gunma Prefecture, a district which includes a number of the depopulated towns and villages. Firstly, settled accounts of revenue and expenditure from 1965 F. Y. to 1982 F. Y. are investigated. The percentage of transfer payments including grants from both the Japanese government and the government of Gunma Prefecture has become very large since the laws of the depopulated areas enforced. Secondly, principal expenditures are determined for each town and village. In each town expenditure on education and promotion for agriculture and construction account for a very large percentage of total expenditure. Finally, the level of components which constitutes residents' utility is examined. There is still a difference between the levels of many components in this district and those in the other region. From the above results it is shown that the situation is going to a desired direction by various measures, particularly intergovernmental grants. However, in some areas there is still a possibility of the situation deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to allocate intergovernmental grants carefully as well as encouraging each local government to work autonomously.
The purpose of this paper is to construct a prototype model for multiregional economy, and to discuss most important policy issues like (a) factor-price-equalization (FPE) and (b) maintenance of regional income share (MIS). We assume that each of n regions has common linear homogeneous COBB-DOUGLAS production function with m factors, and growth rate of each factor in each region has two components: common natural growth rate and growth rate by social movement, which is specified as elasticity of interregional movement (EIM) multiplied with difference between logarithms of marginal productivity of this region and of national average. Thus the prototype model consists of 3nm+2m+n equations. We compile the results in form of theorems without lengthy rigorous mathematical proofs, which are shown in another forthcoming paper Fukuchi (3), but by confirming by empirical results based upon actual data. For this purpose 3 factors (private capital, public capital, labor) and 9 regions model was estimated with Japanese data (1956-80). First theorem states the condition for FPE of each factor in long-run, requiring the inequality between natural growth rate and combination of elasticities of movement. Second theorem states that if this condition is met for (m-1) factors, FPE is guaranteed for all factors. In case of Japan, private and public capitals satisfied the condition, so FPE is secured for all factors although labor does not satisfy the condition. Third theorem suggests the increasing income share of j-th region when j-th region has highest productivity in h-th factor with highest elasticity of movement. In Japan elasticities of movement was 0.0473, 0.0110, and 0.0058 for labor, public capital and private capital respectively. Actually Kanto or Tokyo region had highest labor productivity at 1956 and raised her income share. Nextly an auxiliary variable is defined as a function of initial endowments of factors and parameters of production function and EIM's. It is proved that regional shares of this variable are preserved overtime, and lon-run income share is expressed by this variable. Thus other theorems result by expressing lon-run income share in terms of initial endowments and parameters, and partially differentiating by these parameters. Theorem four calculates elasticity of long-run income share to initial endowment of each factor. Thus elasticity of income share to private capital in Kanto was calculated as 0.6744, and approximately confirmed by simulation. Theorem five states that when EIM of k-th factor becomes bigger income share of j-th region increases if k-th factor is bigger than average and j-th region is k-th factor using overtime. Result is confirmed by an experiment of transfering initial capital in Kanto to other regions. Theorem six discusses the effect of self-financing policy of taxing a factor and subsidizing another factor, and concludes that long-run income share increases if subsidized factor has bigger EIM than taxed factor. Result is confirmed by an experiment of taxing private capital and subsidizing labor in Kanto region. Thus these discussion suggests a taxonomy of multiregional economy into different types based upon absolute values and relations of EIM's. In each type, different trend of FPE emerges, and different policy is required for MIS. Thus discussion throws some lights to clarify similarities and dissimilarities of n countries international economy and n regions domestic economy.
The purpose of this paper is to emboss the future image or perspective of Advanced Information-Oriented Society, applying the Theory of Public Utility as to the typical public-utility-services similar to new-media services on which new society will be formed, and to investigate what economic influences it will bring about to the regional development in the future.