The purpose of this paper is to study corroboration of the adaptability of an analytical method for evaluation of the optimal redevelopment of Greater Tokyo. The life quality to be optimized includes not only material but also city life environment and transport services. The city environment in its widest sense is structured in the dynamic and general equilibrium socio-economic system. It is our underlying insight into the economy of Greater Tokyo that it is an industrial complex generating scale and agglomeration economies if only it is appropriately managed. A drastic urban renewal and improvement of arterial transport network is necessary to enjoy those scale and agglomeration economies of natural gifts in the dwelling environment of amenities. The Method is a large-scaled non-linear dynamic programming model of Greater Tokyo (we call it-socio-economic planning model of Greater Tokyo) into which we built major three policy variables-city planning (compound urban renewal), industrial reorganization, and formation of the synthesized transport system, and through which the optimal policies are endogenously determined. This model belongs third generation of the New Urban Economics and comprehensively resolves shortcomings of the NUE model so far caused by the structural deficiencies. Some simulational results of the pilot model are analysed and it is considered that the evaluation method has a wide scope of adaptability.
Administration implementation of environmental pollution control necessarily requires to accumulate and analyze information which represents the environmental conditions or states in detail. Recently, economical study has received much attention on environmental information because budgets for environmental pollution prevention have been strictly limited. Benefit of information, defined as “saving of excessive countermeasure cost brought by increased information”, is generally difficult to obtain quantitatively because the information always includes intangibles. The smaller volume of information thus makes the estimated errors larger in curtailment of emission derived from the simulation models. The larger margin in an actual emission control may be therefore essential to attain the ambient air quality standard X0 with some probability P0. This could result in higher countermeasure costs both in administration and in industries. One of the purposes in this study is to develop an actual cost effectiveness anlysis (CEA) for information on sulfum oxides (SOx) that includes old history in environmental pollution control strategy. Another purpose is to determine optimum information volume to maximize “effectiveness of information” under the area total mass emission control (ATMEC). This paper deals with CEA on SOx-emission under ATMEC in Osaka prefecture. The ATMEC has strictly required the factories to cut down total emission of SOx based on the simulation models so as to attain the air quality standard over prefectural region. The prefectural region was covered by 30 monitoring station. The environmental information collected and/or accumulated was consistent of air monitoring, meteorological monitoring and emission at various sources. The information on countermeasure costs was collected and/or accumulated by hearing from factories and plant manufactures concerned. The effectivenes of information was estimated or determined by the use of the information in the process from collection of the information at the planning stage of ATMEC until appearing of its effects in final results of the administrative works. As a result, the number of monitoring stations increased by one was estimated to save 200 million yens per year in the emission control strategy in Osaka prefecture. On the other hand, cost of collecting information is genarally given as increase function of information volume. Accordingly, the budgets expended for collecting information could be presented as a linear function of information volume. This function enabled to determine the optimum information volume so as to find out minimum cost (Information Cost+Emission Control Cost). Since the cost however includes unknown parts which are independent of information volume, the optimum information should be determined from intersection of marginal benefit curve with marginal cost curve. The analysis suggested that the optimum number of monitoring stations is 40 with probability P0=90% in the Prefectural area where 30 stations were distributed.
There are two conceivable definitions of noise damage cost: equivalent variation (EV) and compensating variation (CV). From the theoretical viewpoint it can be said that EV is the better definition than CV because the former is a monotonical transformation of the utility function. There remains, however, an empirical question to what degree of disparities in their estimated values between EV and CV there are in the practical measurement works. On this matter the previous literature such as Willig showed the difference between them are at most 10% in the case of price changes. However there seems to be no consensus in the case of public goods such as noise as far as the author knows. In view of this present situation this study discusses the influence of the definition on the estimated value of noise damage cost both theoretically and empirically. In order to do so, first, this study formulates the two definitions of noise damage cost. Second it analyzes their qualitative characteristics on the order in magnitude for general case. Since their difference cannot be clarified from their theoretical analysis, next it specifies the functional forms of utility function into the linear, log-linear and CES. But even in this case the characteristics of this difference cannot be seen. Therefore it estimates the parameters of specified utility functions of these three types by using a pair comparison questionnaire. Using these estimation values, it calculates the values of EV and CV for various noise damage levels. From this empirical study it turns out that even in the case of CES type which generalizes the linear and loglinear forms in the sense that the latter two are expressed by the specified values of parameter of CES, the difference between EV and CV is at most 15%. Although 15% of disparity is a delicate value for the practical cost benefit analysis, this magnitude may be neglected because such an error could be covered by the sensitibity analysis. If so, we could assume that the utility function is linear. Consequently the values of EV and CV are identical, and the absolute values of the damage costs and the benefits are again identical. This conclusion is also helpful for cost benefit analysts in the sense that it simplifies their practical works.
This paper attempts to explore, in historical perspectives, significant roles that a national capital plays, examining what effects the relocation of national capitals rendered to the national strengths and vicissitudes in the Three Kingdon Period, when Shilla, Kokuryo and Paekjae coexisted side by side, but each state attempted contantly to gain supremacy over others. Korea is one of the nation whose present national capital are burdened with problems of over-population, traffic congestion, environmental contamination, etc. Therefore, Several proposals have been advanced, as a means of solving such problems, that is, the relocation of the capital or at least the diffusion of its corpulent functions to other administrative centers. It may be meaningful to review such proposals with respect to the past historical facts in the Three Kingdom Era. Three noted scholars in Yi-dynasty had, already expressed their views on the problems related to the relocation of a national capital, i.e., Lee Chung-Whan (1690-1751), Chung Sang-Hu (1678-1752), and Chung Yak-Yong (1760-1801). All of them belonged to the Shilhak (Practical Learning) School of the days, who rejected to adhere heavily to ideological theories and instead adopted and adored more practical learning. Lee Chung-Whan discarded the traditional theories based on geomancy and helped to contribute to the establishment of a systematic theory based on more practical and scientific methods of geography; He expounded his methods of field survey, enumerating a number of conditions that must be taken into consideration when a new capital site is selected. His ideas were persuasive and also were instrumental to give a larger number of people a clearer idea on an optimal geographical site of a national capital. Chung Sang-Hu stressed his views based mainly on the strategies of defensibility of a new capital. Chung Yak-Yong, on the other hand, explored historical precedents and explounded the posibility of a nation's decline and eventual fall after the relocation of national capitals, due to financial over-burdens imposed by the construction of the capital, large in scale and short in time. Among the three kingdoms, Paekjae was culturally the most advanced, and Kokuryo enjoyed its sovereinty over the largest territory, but Shilla was the smallest state situated in the southeastern portion of the Korean Peninsula. A nation's fall and decline may be attributable to various causes, one of which may stem from the relocation of its national capital. In this respect, it is interesting to note that Paekjae and Kokuryo moved southwards their capitals five times, respectively. Kokuryo's consecutive southward movement of its capital were carried out in order to maintain a farthest geographical distance between its capital and its border with northern enemies, mainly for security reasons, while Paekjae practiced the same measure based mainly on geomancy. The relocation of nation's capital can incur some negative side effects, i.e., it is must sometimes be carried out at the excessive expense of both national and civilian resources and wealth for the construction of the new capital, and also can bring about psychological weakening of national determination and will for its defence. Thus, we may conclude that the relocation of the national capitals in the Three Kingdom Period in Korea--those of Paekjae and Kokuryo--had negative effects to the extent that these two states were obliged to succumb to their national falls. However, Shilla, without undertaking an expensive enterprise of moving its capital, remained in its original capital site, Kyungju, and eventually won the territories of the neighboring two kingdoms, establishing 9 administrative districts and 5 local capitals in the newly acquired areas; these districts and capitals were functional as local centers of politics, economy and administration.
It is indispensable for us to recognize how the residents in the urban area evaluate the environmental quality in their residences, in order to consider the environmental policy in the long perspective with respect to the population growth and economic growth versus the change of environmental quality. This approach is based on the Bid-Rent Theory fundamentally since Alonso developed it several decades ago, and is along the researches made by Anas, Wheaton and Galster. They had developed their empirical researches on the econometric model which is a variation of the bid rent function. In our researches, the following points are made clear: (1) We checked the condition of sign of the parameters theoretically. (2) Though we used the data of the researches, which had been done by the Ministry of Construction, the data is not necessarily sufficient for us in terms of the items of questionnaire. But based on these limitation of the data base, the empirical results of the approach show that the estimation is preferably good. (3) We checked the meaning of the parameters of the various kinds quality of the environmental, which are not yet done by the oher researches. (4) Therefore, although it is necessary for us to do the researches more in detail succeedingly, from the view point of the environmental policy, it is very important to advance the environmental conservation in the residential area formation process compared with the former ages.
A new widespread crisis resulting from the reducation in oil supply had great impact not only upon regional energy demand but also upon regional economicstructures. Much more new energy will be demanded in the coming years. The strongest possibility for meeting such demands will be that of energy conservation through Soft Energ Paths by using regional energy; natural energy and biomass. The objective of the study is to estimate the effects on the regional development by utilization of Soft Energy. It will also cover an economic and environmental evaluation of Soft Energy. The area of inverstigation is the Morioka region of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This region has not only abundant potential evergy; natural energy and biomass, but also a good prospect for regional development. The framework of the study involves the clarification of the social, economie, and industrial structures and the degree of potentiality of the Soft Energy, and the relationships between these structures and regional energy flow. A regional energ model utilizing Soft Energy will be constructed, and the economic and environmental effect of Soft Energy will be evaluated. The main results are as follows. The estimates of the energy demand in the Morioka region, analyzed by System Dynamics Method, are as follows. The energy demand of kerosene in the year 2000 is estimated to be 1.69 times greater than in 1980, gas (city gas and LPG) 1.55 times, electric light and electric power 1.45 times, heavy oil 1.42 times, and gasoline and light oil 1.26 times. The estimates of the energy conservation rates in the Morioka region by the Soft Energy are as follows. In 2000, 9.7% of the energy demand of kerosene is substituted by the Soft Energy. The estimates of the rate of favoring solar energy, geothermal energy, and biomass, based on Attitudinal Survey on the residents of Shizukuishi-cho, and analyzed by Latent Class Analysis Method, are as follows. The estimated rate of favoring geothermal energy represents a very high value of 88.3%. The rate of favoring biomass represents a low value of 57.0%. In Matsuo-mura (Matsukawa district), a power plant that generates 22, 000 kw of electricity utilizing geothermal energy was constructed in 1966, and also in Shizukuishi-cho (Kakkonta district), a power plant (50, 000 kw) was constructed in 1978. Vast volume of hot water is given from both plants. A project of utilizing hot water for multiple purpose is progressing in Shizukuishi-cho, and the effects on regional development, such as promoting the welfare of the people, and encouraging the industry and the agriculture, is expected.
Construction of a multipurpose water reservoir is certainly to enhance the welfare of a region. However more often than not, construction of the reservoir involves extensive area inundated on the upstream side resulting in imbalance on the socio-economic front of the surrounding urban areas. Consequently a great deal of efforts are needed to correct the imbalances created. The objective of this paper is therefore to establish the analytical framework to formulate the regional dynamic model involving the major impacts and the regional performance levels on the living environment. The following are the principal components of the study considered for detail investigation: (1) Formulation of a comprehensive framework of development promotion alternatives with the consideration for individual development measures and their synthesis with the overall dynamic model. (2) Evaluation of standards on the living environment in relation to the regional activities. (3) Examination of the evaluated standards for perspective changes during and after the reservoir construction. (4) Determination of priorities among alternatives based on the inhabitant's preference for improvement of their social environment. The study procedure is as follows: (1) The impact components and the performance levels on social environment in consonant with the development promotion measure for the upstream area are established by the “Nominal Group Technique”. (2) Basic scenarios and alternatives are built from the established facts in (1)above and specific policy framework is formulated. (3) The dynamic system model is built using the technique of “System Dynamics” to clarify the interrelationship between the development promotion projects and the performance level indices. (4) Several simulation are performed using the various alternative inputs. (5) The performance level of these indices are evaluated using the “Multicriteria Analysis” for every phase of the project. Application of the techniques mentioned above to the actual situation on the midstream of the Sorachi River in Hokkaido thruoghout the following results: (1) The regional employment potential could increase to 4.5% during the phase of dam consruction and drop to less than 1% increase on application of regional economic promotional measure. (2) By using each alternative the performance level of every living environmental facility could increase in proportion to the progress in the construction of the dam. In particular, the recreation facilities and medical facilities show greater increase. (3) In the case of evaluation of alternatives, it was found that regional economic promotional measures were the most appropriate for the inhabitant's needs and infrastructure facilities promotion was the second best. (4) The propposed analytical approach is considered to be the most appropriate to identify the complete system of a river basin and the region and decide the priority among the various development promotion measures.
In Japan, the mixed land use is developed mainly by the mixing of factories and dwellings within an old city which is often called an inner city, and many small factories function agglomeratedly in this type of area. Factories located in such area are usually very small, and the dwellings are also small and old. Thus, the renovation of areas of this type forms a big problem for the proper development of policies of the regional and urban planning. These policies are deeply connected with the problem of degglomeration of factories in these areas. Various actions have been taken for the degglomeration of factories since 1960's. Many factories have gone out of the cities as the result of these actions. Nevertheless, there are still large number of small factories operating in those cities. Moreover, the economic role of these small factories in the local regions is increasing its importance, contrary to the common expectations. This suggests the necessity of developing a new policy for the proper handling of the location problem of small industries in those areas. Obviously the development of this new policy must be based on the clear understanding of the nature of the innevitability of the agglomeration of small industries in these mixed land use areas. In this paper, a new approach has been taken for the analysis of the innevitability of the agglomeration of these small firms. The trading behaviors of the firms are studied by using the data of a survey conducted in 1984. The application of a computer program package CATDAP (Categorical Data Analysis Program) disclosed that the distance as measured by the trip time between this firms trading each othe provides definite information for the understanding of the characteristic of the agglomeration of the small firms. The 1984 survey was held in Sumida ward of Tokyo and the list of the seven types of industries surveyed is as follows: 1) iron and steel, 2) non-ferrous metals and products, 3) fabricated metal, 4) general machinery, 5) electric machinery, 6) transportation equipment, and 7) precision instrument. The analysis of the survey data of trading behaviors of firms located in Sumida ward showed that the main works in the tradings were of processiing type. It was also seen that the orders for processing type of works were accepted by small firms located near the firms that dispatched the orders. This shows that the trading activities between the firms of the seven types of industries in Sumida ward are maintained by the tightly knit structure of those firms. The paper concludes with the recognition that any plan of the degglomeration of the area must take into consideration the economic function provided by this type of complex of small factories.
Land evaluation should be regarded as a multiple objectives evaluation resulting from the overall assessment of varying site conditions. As a method of formulating these evaluation processes, the multiattribute utility function (M. U. F.) is considered relatively effective. However it had previously been considered very difficult to conduct research on model construction due to the complex procedures involved with M. U. F. -aggregation methods had not been clarified. In the present study, the following were investigated for constructing evaluation functions, to solve these problems: procedures verifying independence among variables, and methods utilizing orthogonal arrey to determine evaluation function parameters. Comparative analyses between the conventional and the newly constructed methods were also carried out. Furthermore, the application of this method to some actual case studies were attempted. Thereby it was proved that this method is practical use and useful.
Industrial location causes a wide range of changes in the surrounding region. Therefore it is necessary to forecast the future location of manufacturing industries in the regional planning. Industrial location has been widely analyzed by the location theory and the urban economics. But few operational or policy-oriented models, which can be applied in actual planning process, have been developed. One of the reasons is that most popular techniques in land use modelling, so-called aggregate type models, cannot describe well the changes in industrial location. The locational behavior of each industrial firm differs from that of the other. And the number of location is so small that it is not adequate to analyze it using zonal data. On the other hand, disaggregate behavioral models have sound bases of consumer theory and are expected to describe locational behaviors more explicitly with a much broader range of explanatory variables. Moreover, they do not require so many samples. In applying disaggregate behavioral models to location choice analyses, however, there are some problems which are caused mainly by a number of potential alternative sites. In this paper, after some discussions on the applicability of the disaggregate behavioral models to land use analyses, industrial location behavior is analyzed by using nested logit models. Each nested logit model used in the analysis has enough variables to explain its location behavior, and parameters are estimated with good results. In the stage of building the forecasting model, this study discusses the ways not only to introduce capacity constraint caused by lack of land supply, but also to estimate the numbers of different types of industrial locators which are indispensable in forecasting total demand for location in the area. The models are built in both metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Sapporo, Japan, and some comparison between them are also discussed.