This note reformulates the model of “icecream-venders' competition” in a bounded two-dimensional market. Under the behavioral assumptions of (i) identical price setting, (ii) myopic profit maximization, and (iii) free relocation, I show several possibilities of spatial equilibrium. Moreover, through the computer-simulating analyses, I illustrate that the equilibrium configurations of firms are substantially affected by (i) the shape of the two-dimensional market and (ii) the number of firms. The implications of thus derived equilibria are also discussed.
The change in the industrial structure due to the recent development of service type industry in the metropolitan area is causing new conflicts in the land use of the inner urban area where small factories are located mixed with residences, shops and others. The conflicts disturb the location activity within each area and this may lead to the disintegration or termination of the external economies which were generated by the agglomeration of a similar type of industries. The reconstruction of an urban area brings out of relocation of buildings or the change of the land use. Thus this may also disturb the external economy. This paper present the result of an analysis on the effect generated by the agglomeration of factories in Sumida ward of Tokyo. The analysis is based on the survey data of seven types of industries conducted in 1984. The seven types of industries are as follows: 1) iron and steel, 2) non-ferrous metals and products, 3) fabricated metal, 4) general machinery, 5) electric machinery, 6) transportation equipment, 7) precision instrument. The basic concept for the analysis of the data is the trading time distance that measures the distance between a factory and its contractor or orderer in terms of the required time for the trip by usual means of transportation. The value of the agglomeration effect is assumed to be represented by a function of the trading time distance for each transaction. The high density area of the agglomeration effect is seen to be concentrated in some particular part of Sumida ward. This shows that a proper planning of the renovation of Sumida ward could be realized without seriously damaging the present economic activity if only the high density area is left untouched. This observation suggests a possible use of the regional science approach to the problem of urban renovation.
We intend to derive drastic and dynamic prescriptions for the problem of ‘To what direction we should orient and adjust the Japanese agriculture’, which is considered in a framework of the market economy, coping with the DeRegulation policy, i.e., the current trend of thought in the economic policy. The Japanese agriculture now is confronted with the edge of a cliff by the urgent and strong demand from foreign countries, above all, U.S.A. of the trade (import) liberalization of rice, which so far, has been the perfectly self-supporting staple food. The Japanese agriculture now is very week in the international free trade, if the perfect protection policy of rice were changed or modified. So we plan to investigate the following items: 1) To what level the future international market price of rice will converge in cases of (1) the continuation of the current perfectly self-supporting system; (2) a partial import liberalization; and (3) the perfect import Liberalization, etc. We can forecast the near future price of rice to be nearly twofold of current international market price, based on the above model, if the following premises are given that the Japan's partial import liberalization (for example, 10 percent of total consumption, i.e., 1, 000 thousand ton) is executed, and both (or either) of the America's notorious “Marketing Loan System” and (or) “Subsidization System of Deficit of Market Rate to the Target Price” will be moderated or abolished, that is, the so-called Decoupling policy will be adopted. 2) We must diminish the production cost of rice to one half or one third as large as the current cost in order to bring our domestic market price close to the near future international market price being twice as large as the current one. 3) So as to cope with the target mentioned above, it follows that in the near future we need the arable land of enlarged lot equivalent to about 15 hectares as the minimum farming scale of production only by making operating land enlarge, but not yet by reforming the quality of arable land better. 4) It is investigated that the most fundamental cause (disease germ) of the Japanese agriculture lies in the utilization of land in a state of ‘scattered & mingled with each other’*1 and ‘small-sized & segregated’*2 land. 5) In order to cope with these two disease germs, we must invoke our two‘ policy variables (control variables)’, one of which is a ‘drastical structural reform plan of arable land’*3 and the other is a ‘lease-promoting plan of arable land*4, being free from restraint of the proprietary rights’. The former has been taken up in the above which is a policy variable of large-scaled hardware; and the latter is a software policy variable, which is the mutual letting & hiring scheme of land among the regional constituents named ‘the group utilization scheme of all the land in a region’*5. 6) So as to put this ‘Group Utilization Scheme of Land’ into operation, however, we must here, propose to switch the executing body from all the existing ones to the fully-equipped joint-stock corporation. Without the introduction of this type of corporation into rural agricultural regions, we will not be able to promote the efficiency of farm production, and make the Japanese agriculture hold its international competitive power in the market structure of rice in the near future. All the software policies done by the Ministry of Agriculture like a lease-promoting plan of arable land, so far, have not been successful. The reason lies in the excessively strong adherence of Japanese farmer to the proprietary rights of land. This is a general nature of Japanese.
In proportion to the increasing demand of aerial transport, the countermeasures such as a foundation of new routes, an increase of flights to each route, an introduction of large-size aircrafts have been usually proposed to cope with it. All of these countermeasures bring an additional supply of seating capacity respectively. The effects of the correlation between increasing demand and increased seating capacity have not been taken into consideration explicitly in traditional forecast models for aerial transport demand. This study analyzes the effects of these three countermeasures on aerial transport demand respectively at Nagoya International Airport which is located in Nagoya Metropolital Area, where there is a growing tendency to construct an another big-scale international airport. It becomes clear that the foundation of new routes takes its effect no longer than one and half years but that an increase of flights keeps up its effect for many years. Then an effective forecast model, where the effects of those three countermeasures mentioned above are taken into consideration, is proposed for a project to develop the existing Nagoya International Airport. Based on the present tendency that the value of Japanese yen becomes higher and higher, the correlation between exchange rates and aerial transport demand is also examined for the inetrnational passengers at existing Nagoya International Airport by using Multiregression Analysis. Finally an algorithm to modify a forecasted demand value derived from any traditional demand model is proposed by considering the effects of the countermeasures taken up in this study.
Since middle 1970's, many studies have been carried out on disaggregate travel demand models. However, applications of those models to transportation planning are limited: they are usually applied to the local and short-term transportation planning, or they are used in the frame of traditional 4-step travel demand forecasting models by replacing some of those steps. That is, there have been few attempts to develop and apply disaggregate travel demand model systems for predicting travel demand in metropolitan areas. This paper develops a disaggregate model system for the travel demand of workers during a day in a metropolitan area. Daily travel pattern by an individual consists of visits to one or several destinations in trip chainnings that are movements away from his base (home or work place). We assume that these decisions during a day are not independent each other but there exist some relationships among trips that make up tours. Therefore, it is important to represent these relationships among trips in modeling the daily travel demand. In this study, by using the concept of utility maximization of base-to-base trip chainnig, we attempt to develop a set of models for predicting trip generation type, trip purpose, destination, mode choices in each trip on the way from work to home. The structure of travel demand model is represented by using nested logit model so that we avoid a simultaneous model's complexity caused by a large number of alternatives that a traveler faces in making his travel decision, while the model represents simultaneous decision-making process. The model incorporates the concept that decisions of a trip in a trip chain depend on decisions of trips conducted theretofore and decisions of trips planned thereafter, as well as on current trip conditions. The estimation of the model parameters was carried out by using a sequential approach. Empirical examinations of the model system for Nagoya metropolitan area show encouraging results.
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the road construction on the distribution of the population in a small and open city where the border is limited by natural environment. It is often stated that when the traffic system is improved, the population of the city is spread and the population density at the center of the city decreases. We deduced that there exists two cases: one is that the price of the commodities increases and the transportation rates decreases by the improvement of the roads. That implies that CIF prices of the commodities increases at the center, and decreases at the border. Consequently, the population decreases at the center and increases at the border. The other case is that both the prices of the commodities and the transportation rates decreases. Consequently, the population increases uniformly all over the city. Which one appears in the reality depends on the preference of the residents among the commodities and the land. The former case appears when the Marginal Rate of Substitution decreases with relatively constant speed. While the latter case appears when the MRS of the land to the consumption decreases sufficiently slowly near the center, and sufficiently quickly near the border. We also discussed more general city where the border is not limited and compare the results obtained in each case.
Environmental disputes often arise in the process of planning such public facilities as highways, airports, incineration plants or wastewater treatment plants. Especially in the case of incineration plants, many residents are afraid that their environment would be damaged by smoke and offensive smell from them. We surveyed nine incineration plants among thirteen plants in the twenty-three wards of Tokyo and interviewed some residents living around them. From this survey, it was considerd that the recent incineration plants seemed to give less damage on the environment than that of the old ones in terms of smoke, offensive smell and waste water from them. But some people still have bad images against it. The causes of an environmental dispute like this supposed to be closely related to citizens' images or consciousness on incineration plants. The purpose of this paper is to find out the factors which affect citizens' consciousness on incineration plants. we, therefore, conducted interview surveys of both the related staff to this problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and the members of the opposing citizens' group against the construction. We conducted questionaire sheet surveys in the areas of the two plants, Adachi and Katsushika, based on these interviews. From the analysis of the data collected in case studies, the following three were concluded. (1) Garvage carts have more influences on forming citizens' consciousness than the operation of the incineration facilities. (2) There are two factors which affect on the change of the citizens' attitudes towards the plants. The one is the image of incineration plants held by the citizens' before the disputes and the other is their experiences through participation in the movement against the construction. (3) The citizens' experienced the dispute would have much better images than before.
Processes such as spatial planning and (building) construction in urban and rural areas need a lot of information for decisionmaking, particularly land information. The data handlings by that field are executed with view to better problem solving and better results. In relation to that we have to consider two aspects of the tools developed for spatial planning and (building) construction, that is, land information data handling or land information systems (LIS), and tools for decision support. Because our attention focusses on spatial planning and (building) construction in developing countries special references to the circumstances in such countries are necessary, and above all, those circumstances urge the development of adapted approaches. A number of (prototyped) examples of such adapted approaches will be described. Finally, in the conclusions, the adapted microcomputer approaches for the support of spatial decisionmaking will be evaluated with reference to LIS.
The central theme of this paper concerns the spatial dichotomy between innovative firms in the manufacturing sector. In this respect we will concentrate on the question whether and to which degree relatively innovative (especially small) industrial firms are spatially concentrated, and more in particular whether they are located in areas with a favourable selection environment. This issue is treated here from the viewpoint of the validity of the so-called urban symbiosis hypothesis and its complementary selective centrifugality hypothesis. For this purpose we constructed three latent variables, viz. the concepts ‘selection environment’, ‘innovation potential’ and ‘innovativeness’ whose interrelationships will be estimated-on the basis of multiple indicators-by means of the Partial Least Squares method. The first concept is related to the locational profile of the region in which the firm is located, while the latter two concepts refer to the intra-firm characteristics (number of R&D employees, number of innovations and so on), and more precisely to innovation input and innovation output indicators respectively. In analysing the relations between these three concepts our main research finding is that a great many (urban) regions in the central parts of the Netherlands (the so-called Rimcity or Randstad) appear to be in a rather unfavourable position regarding innovative capacity of small industrial firms, even for firms which on average are assumed to have favourable technological prospects. The results cast some doubt on the validity of the urban symbiosis hypothesis, whereas the selective centrifugality hypothesis appears to be more valid in the Dutch context.
This paper analyzes the tendencies in the specialization and decentralization of Japanese manufacturing using the time-series data of Japanese Census of Manufactures by prefectures and by 2-digit SIC codes. Comparing the time-series values of the coefficients of variation and the basic employment to total employment ratios, it is shown that whereas Japan tends to specialize in the export industries at the national level, it has been homogenizing and decentralizing at the regional level. This implies that the localization economies and the urbanization economies are becoming less important in Japanese manufacturing industries. Next, the regional output shares in the 6-digit computer industries are plotted for Tokyo and Kanagawa prefectures. It is demonstrated that the application of the product cycle theory is inadequate particularly in explaining the decentralization phenomenon. Finally, so as to explain this, tested and confirmed is the validity of the theory of interregional spatial division of labor in the multilocational manufacturing firms. Three kinds of analyses are conducted. Revealed are: (i) increasing tendency in the number of branch firms whose headquarters locate in Tokyo prefecture; (ii) less regional variation than the industry variation in the growth rate of employment; and (iii) decreasing trend in the regional variation in the growth rate of employment., It is thus inferred that although the agglomeration economies in a classical sense have been reducing, the agglomeration economies at the interregional network level have been increasing in recent years presumably due to the interregional integration by the multilocational corporations.
This study develops a model for the optimal investment of capital and urban land on the housing and transportation sectors. Although optimal congestion tolls yield an efficient resource allocation, they are difficult to implement because of high administrative costs. It is shown that in the second-best economy with unpriced (or sub-optimally priced) congestion, the usual benefit-cost criterion obtained in the first-best economy leads to overinvestment of capital and land in roads, and market mechanism leads to cause underinvestment of capital and overinvestment of land near the CBD and contrastingly overinvestment of capital and underinvestment of land near the edge of the city in housing.
Though technological innovation has remained a “black box” for economists [Schmookler, J. 1966], the knowledge and creativity should be added to the analysis of the economic development [Andersson, Ake, 1985]. In this paper, to analyze thetechnological innovation, we focus ourselves to the following. (1) To analyze the relation between the R & D activities and the technological innovation, we investigate the relationship between the R & D activities and the patent pending number, which should be a measure of technological innovation, along the researches done by Schmookler, Griliches et al. (2) In order to study the spatial distribution of the technological innovation, we assume that the spatial distribution of the technological innovation should be explained by the gravity type model, a variable of which is the distance among the various kinds of agglomerations of the information centers or the research institutions. (3) We check the shift of the parameters of gravity model, which shows us the change of the influence of the spatial structure through the R & D activities for several years. As the technical innovation brings various types of change to the spatial structure such as the distribution of the industry, population and land use in the metropolitan areas, industrial structure of the metropolitan areas is changing dynamically according to the technical innovation. The regional distribution of R & D activities differs by each sector of the industry. In addition, nowadays R & D activities influence not only one sector but also the other sectors. In the sense, R & D activities, which are represented by the number of researchers or employees of the research institutes of the region, are a kind of public goods [Andersson, Ake 1985]. In the context mentioned above, according to the changing structure of innovations in the metropolitan areas, we argue how this changing structure of the spatial distribution of the technical innovation influences the spatial distribution of the industry.