First, in this paper, achievements that have been performed in the fields of Regional Analysis and Policy in Japan since the organization of Japan Section of RSA in 1962 are reviwed briefly, together with the names of authors which deserve special mention. Then some comments are made in order to stimulate progress of this science and make it more realistic and fruitful. First of all, the further promotion of the interdisciplinary cooperation for Regional Analysis is desired earnestly in the light of the fact that this is a Zwischengebiet newly established. Second, the normative and policy-oriented character of this science is emphasized. Regional Science should be fruit-bearing in the real world. Third, Regional Analysis and Planning should be carried on in a more dynamic setting. The failure of plans which were made in this country in the past was mainly due to their static ways of thought and model-building. Last, when we make a Regional Plan, we should be careful not to accept status quo as status quo. Status quo is never Data given. Nor is the regional plan a servant of the conventional policy. We should always keep in mind that we could improve rather drastically the welfare situation in the country through drawing up the more active and progressive regional plan.
The optimality of general equilibrium system has been founded on the assumption named the free disposal. But this assumption is rarely satisfied in the real world. Because the disposition of the waste which are discarded from production process and others must be charged their disposal cost. And once this assumption is not satisfied, we can no more assume the non-negative price system in the market. We have to introduce the negative prices into the competitive market system. (cf: Arrow, Debreu) Then, the waste disposal problem must be combined with the valuation problem about the negative prices of the nuisance goods. Moreover, waste disposal always has regional properties, and must be accumulation by bulky information in the national level. These iterative processes induce the specific dual variables at regional level to the consistent valuation system of pollutant or waste treatment at national level. These are the “price system” in the shadow market, and found by the framing of the large-scale waste disposal planning
In most countries including Japan road authorities have so far endeavoured to build roads and highways which are most efficient as transportation facilities. As motorization proceeds further, more roads are built, and developments take place in areas adjacent to highways, the adverse impacts of road construction upon natural and social environments become more and more keenly felt. Highway planners are in dismay as their decision tool, namely the cost-benefit-analysis is not apt to evaluate the adverse effects on environments and other social values, and their embarrassement is further aggravated by the upsurge of resistance and objection of the citizens and local communities to many of their road projects. Time is ripe for road planners to most positively respond to the rising desire of the people not only to acquire more mobility but also to conserve their natural and social environmental values. As one who is more interested in practice than in academic achievement, the author has tried to put in this paper some practical suggestions toward that objective. The suggestions presentended are related to (i) road designs which reduce congestion, noise and exhausted gas, and disruptive effects on scenic beauty and nature's ecology, (ii) means to encourage bus transportation with a view to reducing the private passenger car traffic (iii) route selection which minimizes the effect on many phases of natural and social environmental values, (iv) better configuration of road network to reduce through-traffic in cities, undue concentration of city functions in central districts and the need for long distance commutation, and (v) effective placement of bus and truck terminals, depots, and parking lots to eliminate unnecessary or dupricate traffic. He then takes up the approaches started recently in the United States, the “joint development”, “corridor development”, and “multiple use of highway-rights-of-way” concepts and examine their validity in Japanese context. The need for citizen participation in road project is also recognized but, as a premise to its successful introduction into the road planning activities, flexibility and versatility on the part of road planners are required on one hand and positive attitude on the part of citizens and schemes whereby citizens' responses to and wishes concerning the proposed road project be translated into sensible alternative counterproposals must be developed on the other hand. It is also pointed out that improvement of tax system concerning real estate, land use policy, reinforced restriction on use of lands adjacent to roads and freeway interchanges and reinforced legal power to make advance acquisition of highway-rights-of-way easier in an amount exceeding the actual road-bed need for later joint development purpose are essential.
I studied on the urban land price gradients and on the factors affecting their fluctuation in the Tokyo Metropolitan cities, and reported the results of the studies at the First Pacific Regional Science Conference. Then, I attempted to find out the relation between the rates of changes of gradients and the patterns of urban developments and the types and amounts of public investment for these 34 cities. The causes which will decide the fluctuations of the gradients seem to be not only the types and amounts of public investment or patterns of urban developmen but also rates of growth or the modes of distributions of urban population of the cities. But, such a presupposition had not been completely confirmed in the research above mentioned. In this paper, I attempted to clarify more distinctly the causes of the fluctuation of the land price or its gradients in the relation to the industrial structure, population density, residential distribution, and distribution of public investment, by intramural investigation using more detailed statistics per square kiro-metre than above-mentioned inter-cities investigation. I measured the gradients of land prices along 5 lines of railways during 8 years in the city of Yokohama. At the same time, we could measure the gradients of population density and their fluctuations along the same lines. Then, we could find out more clearly the relations between the flcutations of land price gradients and the fluctuations of population density gradients. And I could test the presupposition that causes affecting the land price gradients due to the distribution of population, public investment on road or other public transportation systems along the directions, that is the pattern of urban development. If we could advance this investigation more in detail considering this paper as a progressive paper, we might use the confirmed relationship for the political purpose of land use planning or city planning, by clarifying the relationship between the index of the land use density such as population density or public investment and the land price.
The theory of residential location is concerned with the behavior of the consumer who wants to make a choice among various alternate locations within a metropolitan area. It must analyze not only the equilibrium of the consumer, i.e. how much and where the consumer would buy land in a city, given his income, taste, prices and technology of transport and so on, but also the change in equilibrium with respect to change in the above mentioned independent variables, like income, etc.. However, a number of studies, which have examined the equilibrium of the household, apart from being similar in their approach, are also deficient in their analyses. These deficiencies are: A. They have discussed the necessary conditions of equilibrium, but have not satisfactorily explored the sufficient conditions which are important in order to examine the uniqueness and stability of the equilibrium. For example, Alonso's “Location and Land Use”, though one of the most important ones in this area, is also very erroneous in this point. He discusses and analyzes his theory as if the optimal solution is unique. He does not mention any assumption behind the diagram of the opportunity locus surface. Furthermore, even with the assumptions of well-behaved constraint function, there are possibilities of multiple solutions. B. Few works have been done to examine the comparative statics of the consumer equilibrium, a very important dimension of the theory of residential location. C. These studies neglect the possibility of consumer's choice to live at the Central Business District (CBD), because the simple Lagrangian maximization principle, which all of them use, cannot deal with the corner solution. By using the Kuhn-Tucker theorem of nonlinear programming we can consider such a possibility. Besides, use of nonlinear programming has an additional advantage. It brings to light the fundamental problem involved with the non-concavity of the constraint function in the theory of residential location. D. In Alonso's model, for example, distance from the CBD is thought of as a commodity with negative utility because distance is assumed to represent only accessibility. But distance is also related to environmental quality. In most cities, environmental quality increases as distance increases. Therefore, distance affects utility positively as well as negatively under the assumption of a monocentric city. This means that we need to deal with accessibility and environmental quality separately. This difficulty can be overcome by introducing time element into the model. But to consider this problem we will need a separate paper. Therefore, it is not dealt with in this paper, though we assume that the positive and negative effect of distance on utility cancel out. The purpose of this paper is to examine the three basic issues raised above. First of all, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the equilibrium is discussed, examining the properties of the constraint function, and then the displacement of equilibrium is analyzed.
The purpose of our research is to formulate an econometric model with which we can analyze the effects of increase in social overhead capital on regional and interregional economic activities. We are especially interested in the transport system with four means of transportation, i.e., railway, road, marine and air transportation. Government investments in transport facilities play a crucial role in a development of national economy, since regional pattern and timing of transport investments can affect the pace of economic development. This means that we have to take into account of the interdependence between transport system and regional economy when we formulate the regional model. Our model is constructed along this line. Though the idea of our model is originally based on METS model by J. R. Meyer, we have made modifications of it and introduced several new ideas. So, we call our model Global METS model. Main characteristics of our model can be summarized as follows: a) “Economic distant variables” are introduced in the model. These variables are defined in seven stages, and express changes in time and flow of transportation caused by the increase in transport facilities. b) “Potential product” is defined in each regional industry. We introduced potential production function to show the effects of transport investment on regional economy. The economic distant variables are used as factors of production in this potential production function. c) The determination of traffic assignment is based on the theory of portfolio selection. There are four means of transportation in our model, as we mentioned above. Our method for the estimation of traffic assignment is based on the transporter's choice which is regarded as similar to the portfolio choice. We are now estimating parameters in our model.
Purpose of the new town project The continued concentration of population into Tokyo has brought about what city planners call “urban sprawl” with unplanned housing developments spreading in all directions outward from the inner ward area to the peripheral areas. To cope with this situation, an “urban region” stretching with a radius of approximately fifty kilometers centering around the Tokyo Central Station is set forth for purposes of regional planning according to the Capital Region Development Plan. The major aim in this concept of planning is to ensure an orderly development of the urban region as a whole by way of planned urban development, preservation of green open spaces and others. The Tama New Town Project is directly linked with this regional planning and aims at building a new residential “city” equipped with amenities and environments for human habitation. The town is also planned to form a part of a “Tama urban ring” which is hammered out as a new nuclear of Tokyo Urban Region in “the Tokyo 1990 plan” which was published by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in 1971. Location and topography The site of the Tama New Town is located on a Tama hilly land in the southeastern part of Tokyo and has a long and slender shape with a distance of 14 kilometers from east to west (equalling the distance between Tokyo Central Station and Ogikubo Station) and 2 to 4 kilometers from north to south, covering a total area of approximately 3, 014 hectares. In terms of local government units, the site crosses the areas of four cities, that is, Hachioji, Machida, Tama and Inagi. The hilly land of the site is approximately one hundred and fifth meters above the sea level and the main ridge runs in the southern part of the site from east to west forming the watershed in the catchment area of the River Tamagawa. Okuri River and Kotta River, tributaries of the Tama River, flow through the site, penetrating the hills and thereby making small vales and also scattering farming settlements at various parts of the site. Before the site was chosen for new town development project, about ninety per cent of it was occupied by forests and farmlands. The choice was made because there was still a large amount of land left unused and suitable for large-scale development for balanced residential communities. Basic Principles of Planning The most fundamental principle in the planning of the Tama New Town is to build a healthy environment and a pleasant and convenient residential town inorder to absorb the increasing population of Tokyo. The major elements in the planning are as follows: area of the site....3, 014 hectares (approximately 9, 120, 000 tsubo) planned population....about 410, 000 persons planned number of dwelling units....about 110, 000 units planned density of population....about 136 persons per one hectare (approximately 3, 000 tsubo) It is planned to have sufficient public facilities so as to meet the requirements of the fundamental plan. The town is planned to be composed of 23 neighborhood units, which will be the units of daily life of the residents to be formed centering around one or two junior high schools which will be built in each neighborhood unit. In the center of the new town, a large-sized “New Town Center” with big shopping and other commercial facilities will be developed, in order to make the new town equi_??_ed with the commercial and cultural functions as well as with the function of a mere residential town. Plan of Land Utilization The composition of areas in the New Town District in various uses is: The area in which the project is to be effected and the effecting bodies Originally, a site with a total area of 2, 962 hectares was proposed to be developed according to the New Residential Town Development Law in February, 1965. Later, the planned area was revised to the present 3, 014 hectares.
There are many alternative visions concerning how to develop the Metropolitan outer area, which are consisted of the sets of components, ‘garden city (W. A. Robson type) vs. new residential city’, and ‘beneficiary burden vs. social security’, etc. We break down such qualitative visions into physical terms, and constitute alternative sets of physical plannings. Based on them, we intend to formulate the generalized PPB system-model which can be used to analyse and forcast the financial difficulties of local municipality, subjected to the big-pushing development works of Tama New Town, under the present administrative and financial systems as datum.