Recently, atmospheric pollution caused by automobiles becomes the serious problem. Especially in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA: Saitama, Chiba, Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture), in spite of induction of the total amount control to stationary source of occurrence and enforcement of several plans of the control to exhaust gas by automobiles, the achievement rate of the environmental standard level of NO2 is still low, the pollution by nitrogen oxides in Tokyo Prefecture needs to be devised immediate and effective plans. However modern life is closely related with automobile traffic. When the automobile traffic volume is decreased forcibly in order to decrease the concentration of NO2, we expect that the economic influence will be diversely caused. We build a macro-econometric model to measure economic impacts in TMA under the condition that the traffic-situation and environment are changed, and examine the influence of policies of atmospheric pollution (NO2) in TMA. The model consists of eight blocks (population, employment, expenditure, production, income, capital stock, land price, potential) and contains 168 variables. 145 variables are endogenous (122 estimated and 23 definitional equations) and 23 variables are exogenous. Concurrently, two projects were held, and they studied the automobile traffic and the environmental changes. So, the traffic-situation and the concentration of NO2 are exogenous variables. Potential type variables of income and population are used to describe the inter-regional linkages in various equations. After the final test, the model could properly explain the impacts on TMA's regional economy by the changes of the environment and the automobile traffic. Then, we applied the model to do several simulation studies to clarify various policy effects.
On the study of internal migration in postwar Japan, migration between rural and urban areas has been studied rigorously. But there are quite few studies about the migration between major metropolitan areas in spite of its importance. Based on the Japanese prefectural data for 1955-90, this paper treats two major subjects. The first is to deduce the properties of migration from the actual movement between any two of three major metropolitan areas, (Tokyo, Oosaka and Nagoya major metropolitan areas). The second is to analyse the relationship between net migration of inter major metropolitan areas and regional economic differentials. The results of our analysis is summarized as follows. Firstly the proportion of inter major metropolitan migrants to all inter prefectural migrants has been increasing steadily. Secondly all net migration of each metropolitan areas has been strongly influenced by the excess of inflow to outflow of other major metropolitan areas, especialy after the first oil crisis than before. Thirdly both metropolitan/non-metropolitan per capita disposal income differentials and employee growth rate differentials have a strong positive correlation to the rate of net migration. But those differentials between Tokyo and other metropolitan areas have a weak positive correlation to the rate of net migration. On the case of the migration between metropolitan areas, it seems that employee growth rate differentials have a stronger effect to net migration rate than per capita disposal income differentials.
To improve the quality of urban life, it is necessary to increase a chance of coming in touch with natural environment as well as urban environment. Accessibilities to various natural environments, therefore, are very important factors on making a environmental plan of a wider urban area. The purpose of the study is to find out determinant factors in the residents' evaluation of accessibilities to natural environment and to estimate the accessibilities at any point of a wider urban area. The authors conducted a questionnaire sheet survey in Utsunomiya City which composes an independent urban area in 1989. The number of respondents of this survey is 6, 939, with collecting ratio of 52.1 percent. Using the data, the authors tried to explain residents' evaluation of accessibilities with such physical data, as distance to destination, scale and quality of destination, and such personal attributes data as age, sex, occupation, type of housing, the will of setting in one's place, and land use type around residence. The following three kinds of accessibilities were selected for the examination; to parks and open spaces, to water fronts, and to mountains. The results of the analysis are as follows: (1) Evaluation functions for “to parks and open spaces”, “to water fronts”, and “to mountains” which use residents' evaluation and air distance were developed. They however were not proper. (2) To enhance the evaluation functions to parks and open spaces, air distance to parks which was assumed from traveling time as a explanatory variable improved the evaluation function. (3) To enhance the evaluation functions to water fronts, air distance to water fronts, distance to the center of city and water quality are effective factors in the evaluation of accessibilities to water fronts. Using this evaluation function, evaluation values at whole points of Utsunomiya City were acquired. (4) In the case of “to mountains”, there are little relationship between residents' evaluation and air distance. Therefore route distance or traveling time will be required instead of air distance to estimate an evaluation function. (5) Residents' location from the center of city effect their evaluation. In the case “to parks and open spaces”, the distance become farther, the evaluation becomes lower. And others cases “to water fronts” and “to mountains”, the distance become farther, the evaluations become higher. Evaluation functions using air distance with other factors instead of traveling time is useful. The other hand there is limit to enhance these functions without traveling time. Therefore to use traveling time or route distance also will be required even the estimation is difficult.
The objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical model of non-monocentric urban land use, in which we consider the possible impacts of telecommunication technologies on the spatial organization of office activities in metropolitan areas. Departing from traditional location theory (which treats a firm as a single-unit entity), in this paper we consider that each firm consists of multiple units which exchange information or services. Specifically, we develop a general equilibrium model of the city, in which each firm consists of a front-unit (e. g., business office) and back-unit (e. g., plant or back-office). Each front-unit interacts with all other front-units for the purpose of business communications, while each back-unit exchanges information or management services only with the front-unit of the same firm. Each firm must choose the locations of its front-unit and back-unit optimally. The equilibrium spatial configuration of the city is determined as an outcome of interactions among all firms and households through competitive land and labor markets. We show that depending on the parameters, eleven different equilibrium configurations of a city emerges. In particular, it has been demonstrated that the advancement of intrafirm communication technology will eventually lead to dichotomy of firm activities, where the front-unit activity (specialized in extrafirm communications) will concentrate in the city center, while the back-unit activity will be located in the far suburbs. Hence, it was be conclude that the advancement of intrafirm communication technology does indeed provide a major incentive for job-suburbanization.
This paper aims at introducing the Strategic Choice Approach (SCA), which is one of the technical method for plan-making process. In 1970's in Britain, it had become very hard to make a long-term general planning because of the uncertain change of socio-economic situation. On the other hand, SCA was proposed and has evolved over the last decade and is now becoming to be known among planning practicians in Britain and overseas such as in Germany, Netherlands, Canada, Brazil and so on. To use SCA, an important point is thought not to complete the aim of planning which is first planned, but what to do for decision-making against the problem to be confronted, utilizing experience of the past and any information. It is considered that planning is a continuous learning process and it is important to continue the decision-making at each situation and proposed the decision-making process which has some steps with a view of taking into acount the action to defer some decision as one of a chance to make decision. SCA has 6 steps as a process of plan-making. These are ‘how to choice the problem’, ‘to make clear the shape of the problem’, ‘to choose the alternatives’, ‘to compare the alternatives’, ‘to choose what to do’ and ‘action’. The most important point of SCA is that the process is cyclic. It is permitted to go forward or backward from any step to other step. To make clear the shape of the problem and choose the alternatives, the method called Analysis of Interconnected Decision Areas (AIDA) is used. The problems are devided into some ‘decision areas’, within which some choice called ‘options’ are contained, and between incompatible options of different decision areas ‘option bar’ is drawn. And finally possible combination of options are listed as alternatives. We can make clear the relation between complicated problems to use AIDA. To choose what to do, ‘Commitment Package’ is prepared as the final menu of the plan, which is composed of the action which should be done to correspond with the uncertainty of the decision-making to two parts, what to do now and what to decide later. Using Commitment Package, a process of decision-making is expressed.
There have been a number of investigations of the impact of the location of a town, city, or trading area as a determinant of store patronage. For example, it was found that the large majority living in small towns shopped beyond the town boundalies (Engel et al., 1986; Nakanishi, 1983). However, it is suggested that the consumer's attitude (or mental image) related to store or shopping area is more important in explaining shopping behavior and preferences than is actual location. Attitude is a central concept in consumer psychology, and defined as sum total of evaluation of the perceived attributes of alternatives. Traditional approaches to the measurement of attitude have involved method such as the semantic differential, the Likert scale, or the Thurstone scale. Althoguh insights into ambiguous nature of attitudes were identified early in the development of attitude measurement, the subsequent methods used failed to capture this ambiguity, no doubt because traditional mathematics was not well developed for dealing with ambiguity of judgment. We propose a fuzzy multiattribute attitude model (FMA model) for explaining shopping choice behavior. The FMA model is an extension of traditional multiattribute attitude model such as Fishbein model, and the application of the fuzzy set theory to the multiattribute attitude model. A fuzzy set A is defined as follows. Let X denote a universal set. Then, the membership function, μA by which a fuzzy set A is defined has the form Where [0, 1] denotes the interval of real numbers from 0 to 1, inclusive. A convex and normalized fuzzy set whose membership function is piecewise continuous is called a fuzzy number. Fuzzy rating data we postulated in the FMA model can be approximated to fuzzy numbers. Symbolically, the FMA model can be expressed as where: A basic principle that allow the generalization of crisp mathematical concepts to the fuzzy framework is known as the extension principle proposed by Zadeh (1975). It provides the means for any function f that maps points x1, x2, /…, xn in the crisp set X to the crisp set Y to be generalized such that it maps fuzzy subsets of X to Y. According to the extension principle, the membership function for the FMA model can be expressed as follows. Where: In order to test the FMA model, we use the fuzzy rating method (Hesketh et al., 1988; Takemura, 1990, 1991). The fuzzy rating scale presents respondents with the option of indicating a preferred point and then asks them to extend the rating to the left or light if they wish. By making certain simplifying assumption, the fuzzy rating data can be viewed as fuzzy numbers, hence making possible the use of fuzzy set theoretic operations. For the purpose of explaining shopping choice behavior, a survey study has been undertaken in Kyoto city, Japan.
Recently, several traffic problems such as traffic congestion, air pollution, lack of parking areas, etc. are faced in urban areas. These problems are due to the rapid increase in private car ownership and the increase of car trip length. Thus, an evaluation method for traffic planning and traffic policies to tackle the above problems is required. This study aims at developing an evaluation method for mass transit network improvement strategies and pricing policies. In this study, two cases of policies are considered namely the common fare system and subsidies from new tax. In the first case, flat fare system and distance fare system under the common fare system are assumed in the transit network of Nagoya city. This transit network is assumed to be improved by new subway lines. Then, the effect of change in mass transit network improvement and price policy are evaluated by examining the local and total modal split between private car and mass transit. The results of this study are that social benefit is higher by mass transit improvement and that distance fare system is better than flat fare system as it result in increase of mass transit user. In the other case, a pricing policy is assumed in which car user tax increase and subsidies for transit network in Nagoya city is increased. This policy is similar to a pricing policy carried out in Germany in which the petrol tax was increased. The result of this case study shows travellers' mode change from private car to mass transit.
In the area of low dense and dispersed urban functions, households which own multiple cars have remarkably increased. Under this circumstance, the mobility of the people who are not available to drive an automobile is going to reduce through the decline of the public trasport service. In a such area, the unlicensed people have to secure their mobility with the support by their household members. This paper tries to analyze travel behavior of the lisenced and the unlicensed, considering household structure (e. g. life cycle stage). The data for analysis, in which 1, 130 households and 3, 673 people are contained, are obtained by the Ryomo Region Person Trip Survey conducted in 1989 in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Since the aim of person trip survey gives slight consideration to the relationships within household members, it is difficult to specify the household relationships. Life cycle stages in households, however, are defined considering the difference in age within household members, and these validity as the explanatory factors for the travel behavior of the unlicensed has been confirmed in this paper. The results of analyzing travel behavior are as follows: 1) the number and the socioeconomic characteristics of the licensed members in household differ in life cycle stage; 2) the outing rate and the trip rate for the licensed are higher than those for the unlicensed, and have nothing to do with life cycle stages, while those of the unlicensed differ in life cycle stages; 3) the car-ride-together is utilized as one of the main travel mode for the unlicensed; 4) the necessity of the car-ride-together causes multi-car ownership in a household; and 5) the socioeconomic characteristics of the unlicensed users for car-ride-together differ in life cycle stages. In conclusion, it is clarified that the life cycle stages in households are effective factors for explaining travel behavior.
Economic integration issue is one of the most important economic issues. In this paper, we consider simple macroeconomic models of two regions to analyse how market integration influences fiscal-monetary policy effects on regional variables, especially regional income. First, we focus on monetary integration. We show that an adoption of a single currency under a fixed exchange rate system strengthens the effect of fiscal expansion in a region on the region's income and weakens the effect on the other region's. We have the opposite results as the above under a flexible one. Second, we focus on regional labor market integration, and have the same results as the above if inflation expectations of workers fail ever to catch up with the actual rate of inflation.
Input-output analysis is an important analytical tool for spatial interactions and allocations in the field of commodity flows, not only at a national but also at a regional scale. The heart of input-output analysis is the table of input-output coefficient, and a major drawback of the analysis is its heavy input requirements in terms of both money and time necessary to construct it by the fill-survey method. For the last two decades, so many studies have been focussed on the development of methods for constructing complete tables, using scarce and often incomplete data. These so-called non-survey methods attempt, in general, to adjust older tables to reflect more recent industrial structures or to borrow information in a table of national economy to use for a regional economy. We must select a method among them, in practice. In prior to make it, it is necessary to evaluate their estimation powers and to have informations about its properties. A large number of researches have been proceeded to test these techniques by the way of evaluating the goodness-of-fits, using full-surveyed input-output tables. However, we have no conclusive result which is accepted commonly, because there is a lack of measures of goodness-of-fit, that is commonly acceptable and directly comparative among various non-survey methods. The RAS method is considered to be one of the most widely used techinique in the applied fields. This is a techinique, in which an input-output table at base year or area is adjusted sequentially for rows and columns in order to generate a table at target one. There are so many articles to examining its efficiency as an estimation method by various types of error analysis. Almost all of them have analysed the error from its computational properties, for evaluating the accuracy of estimated results, and have studied the relationships between errors and informations. To estimate an input-output table by the RAS method, we are necessary to have an input-output table as a base, and to observe or predict gross outputs, total of intermediate inputs and sales by each sector. It is used or treated as if these informations are free from some kinds of error. However, in the view-points of a sampling and estimation theory, it is natural and reasonable to consider that these informations are subject to certain kinds of stochastic errors. In this paper, we have examined how the RAS method behaves against these errors. Our analysis is executed by experiments with Monte Carlo simulation. At a preliminary stage of this analysis, we have examined the shapes of distribution for each element of estimated results, without rigorous quantitative analysis. From these analyses, it was found out the facts that the fabrication change multipliers and substitution change multipliers have biased distributions in many cases and that there are several cases, where their distributions are skewed and have two modal values. And, it was shown that input-output coefficients have unbiased normal distributions as a whole.
Now we are in the era of endless free competition game, in which all regions in the world compete with eachother in regional land planning. In this paper, a method is offered that appreciate the ability of this competition game of each region by ranking with some indicator. And by this method, an appreciation is presented by analysing Japanese regional policy that develope local industry of service. It's carried out by using interregional input-output table (9 areas). It divides Japanese territory to 9 areas and try to rank these 9 areas with indicators computed from the model that adopts social-welfare-fuction approach. By raising up the coefficients of the table from local industry of service, this model presents the situation of industrial structure which the local or central government should have achieved to develope local industry of service. Of course, this model dosen't simulate the situation exactly. But by compairing two type of situations, the one is supposed to be achieved by central government and the other is by local government, we can get the character of the local industrial structure and the ability of the competition game with each other. It shows a kind of direction of regional industrial policy.
This paper shows that greater capital accumultation may be achieved under centralized rather than decentralized employment. Centralized and decentralized cities and their related rent profiles can be viewed as outcomes of alternative spatial competitive forces. To see this, rent profiles under spatial monopoly and spatial competition must be derived. If entry occurs at the production center, then due to wage competition by firms the rent will increase. In fact land rents are likely to be higher in cities where several firms locate at the CBD rather than in a “company town” city with a single employer as predicted by our spatial labor market model à la Cournot. In contrast, Löschian entry at the market boundary results in the lowest rent levels around the production center. Aggregate rents are greater when entry takes place at the original production center than when entry occurs at the market boundary. This implies that under certain circumstances national wealth may more effectively be accumulated in the form of urban rent under centralized rather than decentralized employment.
An upstream monopolist has an incentive to integrate foward with downstream monopolists while practicing implicit third-degree price discrimination. The effect is to eradicate the pricing inefficiency normally associated with successive monopolies. The subject integration may lead to Pareto improvement depending on the type of firm (or set) that is merged with the upstream monopolist. This paper also demonstrates that integration of a firm with spatially dispersed downstream monopolists may lead to Pareto improvement under general demand conditions.
This paper examines the formation and properties of subscriber sets of a bi-directional telecommunications service. Most bi-directional telecommunications systems have demand or consumption externalities in that the benefit to a subscriber depends upon the number of subscribers to the system or upon who they are. When a new telecommunications system is to be set up, even an establishment that feels it convenient and is willing to subscribe will not do so alone. It will either subscribe with others or agree to subscribe in anticipation of others joining. The success or failure that a new service experiences depends upon whether they attract enough uses to become feasible and profitable. This means that there exist two significant sets. The one is the minimum subscriber set for the system to be feasible and the other is the ultimate expansion level of it. The former is called the critical mass and the latter the equilibrium user set. Although some authors have proposed this idea, their argument would be rather intuitive. In this paper, I give a rigorous definition of these sets in the context of the stability and unstability of them. Heterogeneous and nonanonymous users are assumed to formulate the model. Equilibria of the system are defined as a set of users in which the benefit to the smallest usage subscriber is equal to zero. A dynamic approach is applied to examine the stability of the system. The condition for a two-part tariff system to be feasible is derived.
In this paper we will attempt to measure the economic benefits of a large-scale forestry road improvement project. The economic benefits to which we will pay attention here are those measurable ones in montary terms. They concern the reduction in traveling costs and time saving of vehicles that will use this large-scale forestry road. At first we will measure the reduction in vehicle traveling costs, using the following formula: BCtj=(TCto-TCtj), where, BCtj=reduced vehicle traveling costs at each year (t) after road improvement (j). TCto=traveling costs of vehicle at each year (t) before road improvement (o). TCtj=traveling costs of vehicle at each year (t) after road improvement (j). The calculating procedures are based on the following: (1) Classfication of the kind of vehicle. (2) Estimation of average daily traffic by vehicle at each section. (3) Calculation of average speed of vehicles before road improvement. (4) Computaion of traveling costs by vehicle at each section. (5) Calculation of the reduction in vehicle traveling costs at each section. (6) Estimation of the benefits by saving of vehicle traveling cost at all sections. Next, we will measure the benefits by time saving of vehicles. The measuring formula is: BTtj=(TTto-TTtj), where, BTtj=the saving of vehicle traveling time at each year (t) after road improvement (j). TTto=time cost of vehicle at each year (t) before road improvement (o). TTtj=time cost of vehicle at each year (t) after road improvement(j). We will calculate the benefits by time saving of vehicles based on the following procedures: (1) Classfication of the kind of vehicle. (2) Estimation of average daily traffic by vehicle at each section (3) Calculation of the value of time by vehicle. (4) Computaion of the reduction of time at each section. (5) Calculation of the amount of time saving by vehicle at each section. (6) Estimation of the benefits by time saving of vehicles at all sections.