Though the OD traffic flow is the traffic flow from one zone to another zone, the current traffic assignment methods assume that the OD traffic flow is generated from one node and destined to one node known as centroid. The shape and the constitution of zone are not taken into consideration at all in the assignment methods. In this paper, the errors caused by this assumption will be analyzed. Two traffic assignment methods will be developed to improve the current methods. In the improved methods, OD traffic flow can be generated from many or all nodes in any zone, but the needed data, computation and memory space are the same as that of general traffic assignment methods. The fitness of the improved methods will be certified by the traffic assignment of a assumed network and the road network of Nagoya city.
This paper investigates whether and to what extent the presence of distributors affects the working and performance of the market economy. Working with a simple Stackelberg leader-follower model, we show that the entry of an informed distributor brings about not only extra distribution costs (the intermediation effect), but also acquisition of market information (the information effect). If the demand uncertainty is relatively large and hence the information effect overpowers the intermediation effect, then the market economy with distribution channels performs better than the distribution-less economy. Therfore, distributive intermediation should be a natural response to informational asymmetry.
In this paper, we first examine the characteristics of optimal economic growth under a given environmental regulation. The phanse diagrams make it easy to graspe the transition from any one situation to other. Second, we propose to apply the fuzzy control to the determination of the regulation on discharged pollutnant. The economic growth in this paper is patternised into two phases; in one of which the pollutant discharged from usual productive activity should be reduced through the operation of the cleaning activity, while in the other need not. And each phase is further divided into two cases according as the current product in wholly consumed or not. The fuzzy control introduced in determining the value of regulative parameter proves to be effective, in that it copes with the fuzziness such as one concerning how rapidly the level of pollutant should be reduced, in that it facilitates to determine the value of parameter taking account of the locational distribution of the economic agencies emitting the contamination and those suffered from it, and in that it enables us analyse simultaneously, though not completely, the intertemporal behaviour of the capital stock and level of pollutant.
In the model that a firm produces one commodity, say electricity by the use of two factors, say capital and a resource under the rate of return regulation on capital, we analyse the firm's optimal behaviour, when one of the factor prices is uucertain. Our conclusion is that if the resource price is uncertain, the firm's risk attitude and the degree in risk influence the firm's resource allocation, but if the capital price is uncertain, this uncertainty never affects the optimal level of factor employment.