Regional Economic indicator have affected by development of national level economic indicator. Recently, Japanese Economic Planning Agency published a trial of the Environmental and Economic Accounts at national level in Japan. Consequently, estimation of environmental accounts at regional level has come to a great issue for regional agency. This paper aims to show an example of environmental accounts at regional level and to point out problems of its estimation. Traditional environmental accounts consist of (1) single indicator based on SNA, such as MEW or Green GNP, (2) satellite accounts of SNA recommended by UN, (3) Natural resource accounts consist of material indicator. We think that satellite accounts will become to main stream of environmental accounts. Japanese Economic Planning Agency published a trial of the Environmental and Economic Accounts. It shows (1) values of protection related to environment in stocks and flows in SNA, (2) Imputed environmental costs consist of monetary values of external diseconomy related to environment, (3) eco domestic products (EDP) to make by deduction of imputed environmental costs from GDP. Imputed environmental costs include air pollution, water pollution, destruction of ecological system caused by land development or deforestation, exploitation of subsoil resources, etc. We have made a trial of the regional imputed environmental costs by division of national level values, and estimated eco domestic products (EDP) at regional level. We should have made the prefectural Imputed Environmental Costs separately. But if we can get appropriate distribution indicator, this approach also might become a way to make regional indicator. According to this estimation, total net prefectural products indicates 390.1 trillion yen, while total imputed environmental costs is 8.4 trillion yen, so the proportion of total prefectural imputed environmental costs to total net prefectural products was 2.2%. But according to prefectural data, they are distributed from 4.1% (Saitama) to 1.0% (Tottori). Moreover, if we calculate the imputed environmental costs per 1 km2, they are distributed from 398 million yen (Tokyo) to 3 million yen (Iwate). There are many differences in environmental problems between regions, so we think there is great significance to make the environmental accounts at regional level. But we do not satisfied to this estimates. We hope to many other trials of estimates for environmental accounts at regional levels are done by different way.
The purpose of this research is to use the Japanese model of business management to study and critique the Chinese enterprises' business management since reform and open-door policy. The study, first, explores the factors that limit the implementation of a modern management system by looking at systemic problems, structural functions, and management style of the Chinese enterprises. Secondly, this study formulates policyproposals for the future reform of Chinese enterprises' business management, which may strengthen and improve the overall situation and competitiveness of the enterprises under market conditions. The chief method and characterisitic of this research is, that it first makes a comprehensive study of the Japanese business management and uses it as standard criteria to measure and investigate the practical aspects of Chinese enterprise business management under reform. The statistical investigation is based on 13 categories with 102 items, demonstrating the broad range of the study coupled with content-precision and its qualitatative nature. The statistical investigation is based on 12, 000 data, which are analysed through factor analysis and multi-variate analysis of regression. Based on the abovementioned analytical method, the study established 5 control factors in the Chinese enterprises' business management style, it then studied their interrelationship and their influence on the growth of the enterprise. Based on the results derived from the analysis, the study carried out a diagnosis of the enterprises business management and identified 4 types of conditions, followed by a critique of their internal mechanisms. Based on the above-derived results, this study, formulated policy-proposals for the macro-cum-micro reform of the enterprises business management style. The study also prognosticated the future pattern of development of enterprises, following the implementation of the proposed policies. In conclusion, the comprehensive study of enterprises after 16 years of reform and open-door has clearly demonstrated Chinese enterprises business management problems and the challenges they face amid reform. This study emphasizes the importance of correct business management strategy to reform and develop the Chinese enterprises.
This paper analysis the effects of information development and employment policy on labor input in Shanghai and Japan by estimating labor input function (LIF). The estimation considers both information development which affects external economies on the industries, and employment policy which is being implemented by the government under the system of planned-economy or by the board of directors under the system of market economy. The reduction in labor inputs due to information development and the concealed unemployment due to employment policy are both estimated and analysed quantitatively. This paper provids an example of a developing country like China (Shanghai) and a developed country like Japan.
Recently, economic growth is improving in Vietnam. Many people in the world pay attention to this powerful economic performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether the economic reformation and overseas assistance fund is valid for economic development and whether such an economic growth will continue or not. For this purpose, I specify an econometric model and simulate the various situations in the future. The results are as follows. Firstly, macro-economic structure is restricted by a supply side factor. If saying with an other word, there is some restriction in production, capital formation and trade. It is useful to put into effect the economic reformation and the overseas assistance fund for relieving this restriction. Especially the cost-benefit ratio of foreign assistance fund is expected to 2.5 in 1980's and 2.6 in 1990's. Secondly, with these economic reformation and the overseas assistance fund, the production of manufacturing and service industry move up rapidly. But the growth rate of agriculture get lower compared with other industry. In Vietnam, agriculture is a principal industry in the rural district. And manufacturing and service industry is mainly located in the city. Consequently, economic reformation and the overseas assistance fund magnify an economic differentials between rural area and cities. Finally, the population policy is also important. An increase of population brings about an increase of Gross Domestic Product. However, the growth rate of per capita GDP become negative, because increase rate of population is higher than that of total GDP. Similarly, consumption per person, welfare index, employment rate are also decreased under the high population pressure.
The discussion of sustainable development has received increased attention from the international community. For this situation, United Nations Handbook on the SNA Satellite System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) was issued by United Nations Statistical Division (UNSTAT) in 1993. The purpose of this paper is to propose an extended form of the SEEA which can deal with any kind of global environmental problems. The global environmental problems include the five types of environmental disruptions: (a) transboundary pollutions, such as acid rain, (b) environmental disruptions in the less developed countries (LDC) caused by direct foreign investment and economic assistance, (c) depletion of natural resources caused by international trade, (d) disruptions of the ecosystem caused by the poverty in LDC, such as desertification, (e) disruptions of the global commons such as the greenhouse effect and ozone layer depletion. In order to respond better to these environmental problems, all sorts of accounts such as income distribution accounts, financial accounts and external accounts are required. However, the SEEA proposed by UNSTAT has not got access to these accounts because it is constructed only on the basis of the supply and use table of produced goods and services and on the non-financial assets accounts. Therefore it cannot describe the global environmental problems. I propose an extended form of the SEEA, “A Complete SEEA” as an accounting system which can suitably treat any kind of global environmental problems. The Complete SEEA is a comprehensive accounting system which contains all accounts of the 93 SNA including stock accounts. It can describe all sorts of economic and environmental relationships between each country and global commons because it includes not only the accounts of many countries but also the accounts of global commons as a dummy sector. The Complete SEEA is also compared with NAMEA (A National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts) by S. J. Keuning et al. The Complete SEEA is just an integrated information system which can support integrated economic and environmental policy for the sustainable development.
This study augments the traditional linear cobweb model with lower and upper bounds for variations of output. Its purpose is to detect the relationship between the output constraints and the dynamics of the modified model. Due to the upper and lower bounds, a transitional function takes on a tilted z-profile having three piecewise segments with two turning points. It prevents the price (or quantity) dynamics from explosive oscillations. This study demonstrate, by presenting numerical examples, that the modified cobweb model can generate various dynamics ranging from stable periodic cycles to ergodic chaos if a product of the marginal propensity to consume and the marginal product is greater than unity.
As the consumer spatial behavior is extended, a spatial agglomeration effect of the shopping destinations is an important factor to provide for the consumer spatial behavior. When the level of aggregation of the shopping destinations influences the spatial behavior of the consumer, application of Luce model with the IIA (independence from irrelevant alternatives) property and the regularity property (for instance, Huff model and MCI model, etc.) has the possibility to become the wrong one. As a result of the empirical analysis, it was clarified that a spatial agglomeration effect of the shopping destinations influences on the interurban consumer spatial behavior and the effect of agglomeration was different according to the characteristics of the goods. The characteristics of the goods divide into three types. One are goods where the merit of spatial agglomeration exists between the shopping destinations (“type A”). The following are goods that the demerit of agglomeration, that is, competing effect exists between the shopping destinations (“type B”). The third are goods where the effect of agglomeration does not exist (“type C”). When the Luce model with the IIA property and the regularity property is applied to making of the consumer spatial behavior specific, the retail drawing power of individual shopping destination will be underpredicted in the goods which belong to “type A” as the level of aggregation of the shopping destinations increases. On the other hand, the retail drawing power of individual shopping destination will be overpredicted in the goods which belong to “type B” as the level of aggregation of the shopping destinations increases. The misspecification is not caused in the goods which belong to “type C” alone.
Modern cross-sectional land price models are “functional” models in which relations between land price and only some attributes (e. g. accessibility to CBD) are considered. However, the expectation factor exists in the determination of land prices, but is not captured by these attributes independently. In fact, the spatial spillover of land prices in metropolitan areas under the Japanese bubble economy shows that the expectation factor is based on the spatial relationship “structure”. This study, therefore, aims to econometrically identify the functional and structural factor respectively, and estimate “structural-functional” models for land prices with the Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis method. Specifically, we analyze the residential and commercial land in Tokyo's 23 wards during a 10-year period (1984-1993) which includes the bubble and post-bubble period. The estimation is developed by maximum likelihood method based on asymptotic theory, thus it is necessary to consider smal sample properties of estimators. We investigate this problem using both artificially generating data and raw data which is used in the estimation of “structural-functional” models of land prices. The results of this study are concluded as follows: (1) “Structural-functional” models for land prices have consistently high fit for the period. The strength of spatial relationships measured as ρ is strongest in 1987 and is more considerable in the residential land than in the commercial land. In fact, the spatial structural factor is dominant in the residential land prices, but the functional factors is relatively dominant in the commercial ones. (2) The estimates for spatial autoregressive paramerers (ρ) and their variances tend to be underestimated and the extent of underestimations mainly depends on the size of samples and the true values of ρ. Also, the reproduction of the estimated coefficients (β and ρ) in the “structural-functional” models of land prices can be almost accepted only if the coefficients are significant. Specifically, the error ratios are under 10% in 500 repetitions.
The role of automobile in the urban freight traffic gets more serious, year after year. Since almost all freight traffic in a city depends on motor trucks, it causes various urban traffic problems. In this study, we assume some logistics centers are established in Chukyo area. This paper shows how much use of logistics centers in urban goods movement reduces the traffic congestion of urban road metwork.
In the 1960's, the problem of environment and pollution was considered as due to the difference between the private and social costs. The focus of the problem was often laid on the conflict between the polluters (firms) and the pollutees (consumers or residents). It was substantially resolved by the progress in the technology of the environmental protection. However, it has to be notified that the environmental problem which has been recently argued from the global view point is a consequence of the principle of materials balance. The environment is the source of the inputs of natural resources or energies into the production process of the human beings, and is also the destination of the wastes which are residuals of the production and the consumption. The materials are conserved through the production and consumption and the same amount of industrial, recycled, and consumption wastes are discharged into the environment. Recently, the amount of the discharged pollutants have been dominating the natural capacity to remove the pollutants. The pollutants have been rapidly accumulated in the environment. The level of the accumulated pollutants is about to go beyond the critical threshold of the human beings to be alive. In this paper, we consider that any economic activity makes the difference of value between the inputs and outputs of the activity. We will present an eco-system model in which the interaction between the socio-economic and the ecological systems is taken into account, and value added of each economic activity is not only distributed to the inputs of the usual factors of production but also paid in return for the input of the stock of the environmental goods. The latter distribution of the value added is to be sufficed for the ‘gross’ depreciation of the stock of the environmental goods. We specify a linear eco-system model. There are two types of industries. One is the usual industry which produces usual economic goods, and jointly discharges pollutants. The other is the pollution abating industry which remove the pollutants or convert them less hazardous ones. The goods are classified into the usual economic goods or the environmental goods. An increase in the specified pollutant is a decrease in the environmental goods associated with the specified pollutant. The activity of consumption by the household as well as the activities of the usual and pollution abatement activities will discharge pollutants into the environment. Based on the ‘producers pay principle’, the rate of the value added tax on each activity of the usual or pollution abatement industry is derived using the value system associated with the material system of the eco-system. The rate of the tax is dependent on the rate of the value added distributed for the unit product of the usual goods to the rate of the value added which should be allocated for the unit abatement of a pollutant.
This paper probes the market-size and income effects of imperfect competition upon prices. Assumed in the present inquiry are conditions of Cournot unlimited entry (in combination with Löschian competition) in a market characterized by various combinations of parameters. The key parameters considered here are the size of population or the number of customers, their distribution over space, and their income. Questions of particular interest to our inquiry include: 1) Would an increase in income cause a decline, rather than a rise, in prices in equilibrium? Would the form of the standard Marshallian demand function matter? Under what conditions, in particular, are prices in a poor market higher, not lower, than are in a rich market? Would spatial distribution of customers matter in this connection? 2) Would an increase in the market size cause a decline, rather than a rise, in prices in equilibrium? Are prices higher in a larger market rather than in a smaller one in terms of either spatial areas or population density? If not, why not? Do we expect the same effect of the market-size enlargement (or differentials) upon equilibrium prices regardless of how the term “market size” is to be defined? [D4, D43; F12, F13]
(1) Fundamental structure of ecological system which is the basis of economic activities Nature is a circulating and open system. It is obvious if human loses the balance with nature, the impact will be not only on humanity but also on others. Human should pay attention to external effects, visible and invisible, of the system of nature. We should not forget the basic fact that fundamental goods of existence belong to nature itself which we utilize without paying the cost as if they are free goods. Since the Industrial Revolution, we have succeeded in raising the standard of material living by developing natural science, accumulating know-hows and transforming these achievements into technological innovations. The prosperity, however, has been built upon sacrifices of ecosystem, because our goal was the maximum growth of economic system and the maximum profits. We have reached the point where the materials and energy (through-put) which economic system has taken from ecosystem exceed the capacity of ecosystem (natural capacity of purification including recycling capacity, etc.). Ecology has given warnings to us in this regards. Therefore, we should create a new economic system in order to achieve coexistence between eternal existence of humanity and other living existence. The new economic system should be based on the principle of coordination and adjustment between economic system and ecosystem. Environmental degradation in the 21st century cannot be prevented without addressing this fundamental point. We should change our way of seeing nature as just inputs for our economic activities. More importantly, the economic process of nature has essential functions to sustain lives. We should recognize not only use of resources as marketable goods but also environmental benefits (environmental goods) which we utilize free of charge like free goods. We didn't have this recognition and mistook the economic process of nature which comes out of ecosystem. Now, we should consider the through-put value of ecosystem centering on nature as potentials which have multiple functions in circulation and movement of materials and energy. What is requested strongly is to analyze the relationship between economic system and natural environment or ecosystem and to recreate the economic system. (2) Classification forest ecosystems and management principles In order to achieve balanced objectives of utilization and preservation of nature, management to make use of potentials of forest is necessary in a region. (i) Forests with high function of timber production should be preserved and utilized as “economic forests” to enhance yields. (ii) Forests with high function to supply water sources should be enhanced its functions as “water source forests” and water source functions making use of natural vegetation as natural forests. (iii) Forests with high function of disaster prevention should be preserved as “disaster prevention forests”. (iv) Forests with high function for health and leisure should be preserved as “forests for health” and facilities enabling go fulfill its functions fully should be stalled in vicinity without major destruction of forest ecosystem. (v) Forests with high cultural function such as primeval creatures should be preserved as “cultural forests”. As discussed above, “economic forests”, “water source forests”, “disaster prevention forests”, “forests for health” and “cultural forests” should be maintained as basis of forests management and control. (3) Economic instruments for preservation and utilization of forests In order to establish a development system to utilize ecology of forests, a proper mechanism is needed in terms of forest maintenance. Energy of private sectors can be introduced in forms of separation system, trusteeship and utilization of pensions.
At present Japanese economy is not felt full recovery but shown in serious circumstances, in spite of business upturn on October 1993. The immediate causes are effect of sudden fall in the land and the stock accompanied with burst of bubble economy, the high yen-rate, dullness of private production investment from very excess capacity, and so on. In the background, the development of new leading industry is not indicated clearly yet, despite the next turning point of leading industry which has changed from the iron and steel to automotive industry, more to electric. The serious condition of Japanese economy, as mentioned above, effects each prefecture regional economy greatly especially the urban prefectures on account of sudden fall in the land and the stock. But expansionary fiscal policies are not expected under sharp austerity. All told, to get over difficulties is depend upon making every effort to get each regional economy brisk in each prefecture. In this paper, first we understand steady economic growth based on the progress of tertiary industry and the expansion of processing and assembly industries in manufacturing industry in Japanese economy since 1980. Beside, we understand the trend of the expansion of gaps in that regional economy growth. Next in three prefectures, which are Tokyo, Osaka, Aichi, very badly effected by burst of bubble economy, we analyze these regional economy in the term from the second oil crisis to the burst of bubble economy and examine the possibility and the direction to develop regional economy. And, we show several key points to develop regional economy.
Rapid population growth and migration to the cities exert pressure on the urban land units as well as its encircling ecosystem land units. Since Japan has relatively less habitable area with mostly population is concentrated in major urban centers, urban and agricultural activities have to be conducted in a very small densely populated districts. In this study we have attempted to study the landuse changes caused due to the emergence of subway network within Sapporo city during the eighties as a part of urbanization process. Present study focusses along the 500 meters buffer zone of subway network within Sapparo city. ARC/INFO GIS was used for digitization and other data entry operations along the buffer zone. In some cases, some more areas in outer polygons were also considered in order to maintain the continuity along the buffer boundaries like river, marshes. The landuse maps of 1977 and 1993 prepared by Geographical Survey Institute, Japan were used as base thematic layers for analysis. Detailed urban landuses such as residential, commercial areas, industrial areas, Recreational areas etc. and also other ecosystem units such as agricultural/fallow lands, orchards and marshy areas were re-grouped and digitized. Then landuses were integrated to derive landuse changes. Using the INFO/TABLES database integrator within the ARC/INFO GIS environment, landuse statistics tables were generated for landuses in 1977 and 1993. Based on the change trends, break-up details for landuse conversion to commercial areas in 1993 were analysed and details are tabulated. The major findings are the conversion of agricultural fallow/marshy areas into other urban uses, including the conversion of marshy canal into an expressway.
Hanshin-Awaji earthquake struck Kobe on January 17th 1995, and ruined the city, leaving 6, 000 victims and 530, 000 people unsheltered. But fortunately the damages of school buildings were less serous, so the class rooms could provide adequate spaces for refugees. Thus about 60% of refugees spent about 8 months in primary and secondary schools with the help of school teachers. After the earthquake, each government authority concerned started to consider its own countermeasure. Then the National Land Agency set up the “Conference for Countermeasure Against Earthquake”, Which consisted directors of main authorities concerned. On 19th January, prime minister set up “Headquarters of an Emergency Countermeasure for Hyogo-ken-Nannbu Great Earthquake” for concerted actions among the government. Eventually “the Law for Master Plan and Organizations for Reconstruction of the Stricken Area” passed the diet, and Headquarters of Reconstruction of the Area was set up. To cooperate with the overall actions, the Ministry of Education also set up the task force of “Coordination Staffs for Reopen and Reconstruction for Schools”, and first supplied daily necessities and sent emergency doctors team, and then sent the team of architects and engineers to help recover the damages and to financially help the prefectures concerned. While the local people were keen about the reconstruction of physical infrastructures such as roads, railways, ports and others, the government took the effective actions for reconstruction of school buildings and replacement of excess teachers within the limited financial resource. Following the lessons from the earthquake, the government is due to plan the school facilities as the regional shelters. To put it concretely, it involved: (1) to set school facilities as shelters, (2) to appoint a responsible persons like school master in case of disaster, (3) to provide adequate information to refugees in schools. A point of emphasis is that while the basic transport facilities are daily necessities, but also the function of schools in case of earthquake is no less important than these physical infrastructures.
Local public organizations are going ahead with measures to protect the lives and properties of their residents from natural and man-made disasters. Such measures will prevent disasters, and lessen the likelihood of damage when a disaster occurs. In the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, which occurred early on the morning of January 17, 1995, newspapers reported delays in setting up a system for immediate action to be taken. This paper will consider a disaster prevention center, which will serve as a command center in anti-disaster activities. It will also introduce the Tokyo Metropolitan Disaster Prevention Center which will provide information in establishing a system for initial reactions after a disaster, and proceed with activities for preventing disasters. Firstly, it is necessary to examine previous disaster prevention activities, and an example is the volcanic eruptions on the Izu Oshima Island. A description of the themes concerning preparations and improvement of a disaster prevention center will then be provided in this paper. Then, a definition of a disaster prevention center will be clarified. For these purposes, the command center will be deemed as the decision-making focal point, performing disaster prevention activities. The basic functions of a disaster prevention center, and the requirements of the center to carry out its functions, will be discussed. Based on these considerations, the Tokyo Metropolitan Disaster Prevention Center opened in April, 1991, will be introduced. This will facilitate a deeper understanding of this aspect of disaster prevention activities.
The Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, which occurred at dawn on January 17, 1995, caused unprecedented damage, due mainly to the closeness of its epicenter to urban areas. In Kobe city alone, the disaster claimed the lives of as many as 4, 512 people (as of January 8), and destroyed industrial facilities and urban infrastructure, including port facilities. The total cost of the damage is estimated at approximately 6, 900 billion yen. The damage to facilities has adversely affected facility operation and production. In addition, distribution capacity has greatly decreased, due to damage to the Port of Kobe, a major distribution center in Western Japan and one of the major international trade ports in Japan. Ultimately, the slowdown in economic activities in Kobe has adversely affected Japan's economy and industries nationwide. To restore the daily life of citizens, we must first restore economic activities, an essential element of urban life. At the same time, it is important to consider various structural problems revealed by the earthquake. To name a few, structural challenges faced by Kobe include inner city problems, growing competition with other cities in Japan and abroad, and problems caused by economic globalization and the high appreciation of the yen. We cannot separate such structural problems from other problems caused by the earthquake. Through our efforts in restoring Kobe, we must also address these kinds of structural problems; in other words, it will not suffice merely to restore the city as it was before the earthquake. In the city of Kobe, in addition to carrying out urgent restoration measures, we intend to revitalize enterprise activities and to create jobs, as part of measures to address structural problems. For this purpose, we plan to designate a “Kobe Business Start-up Zone”, which will include an “Enterprise Zone”, where deregulationa and tax incentives will be provided. This report explains the earthquake damage to Kobe's economy, and discusses the concept and potential effect of the “Kobe Business Start-up Zone”, with reference to the United Kingdom's Enterprise Zone as an example.