This paper provides a complementary perspective to the evaluation of economic structure represented in either input-output or social accounting matrix terms that has been adopted by Pyatt and Round (1979) (multiplicative decomposition) and Defourny and Thorbecke (1984) (structural path analysis). The proposed new approach analyzes the matrix derived from the product of row and column multipliers extracted from the Leontief inverse matrix. Within this framework, attention is focused on the following issues: (1) the hierarchy of backward and forward linkages and their associated economic landscapes reflecting the cross-structure of the multiplier product matrix; (2) the maximum entropy properties of the multiplier product matrix; (3) the consideration of the multiplier product matrix as the matrix of first order intensities of the fields of influence of change and the hierarchy of inverse important inputs; and (4) second order intensities of the field of influence. The meaning and importance of the multiplier product matrix is demonstrated through applications to the Japanese interregional tables for 1985.
After discussing briefly why interaction decreases with distance and how, this paper reconsiders the location of market-oriented industries when the demand function is separable into a price dependent and a distance dependent term. The concept of market potential is economically motivated.
Given the global trends of growing international economic integration and growing international migration flows, the possible linkages between these phenomena are of interest. Trade liberalisation is often seen as a means to reduce international migration pressures. However, such a view is based on the assumption that trade and migration are substitutes. Instead, many theoretical situations can be described where migration and trade are complements. This paper briefly summarises the main theories on this relationship and then moves on to the empirical evidence for Australasia. Australia and New Zealand have close historical, cultural and economic ties. Citizens can move freely between the two countries. Trade between the two countries has also grown rapidly, particularly since the implementation of a 1983 free trade agreement. The impact of further removal of trade barriers vis-a-vis third countries on trans-Tasman trade and factor mobility, production sectors and the labour markets of both countries is assessed by means of simulations with a two-country multi-sectoral Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. The simulations show that removal of trade barriers at the Australasian border will lead to microeconomic adjustments which encourage labour migration from Australia to New Zealand, but professional worker migration and capital flows in the opposite direction. However, the impact of the sectoral and labour market adjustments on inter-country factor mobility is likely to be small and could be outweighed by the impact of concurrent macroeconomic policies and business cycle fluctuations.
This paper describes a users' equilibrium model of parking location choice with explicit capacity constraints of parking lots. The model formulates the motorists' parking choice who work in urban central area with long time parking and drivers' parking choice faced with congested parking lots in central business district (CBD). The waiting time at entrance of parking lots is predicted by this presented model. This model also formulates effect of road congestion on the drivers' choice. A simple example is presented which illustrate road congestion affects drivers' parking choice. Another simple example proposed in this paper demonstrates queuing and waiting time forecasting with restrained parking capacity and drivers' choice in the congested parking lots. The user equilibrium model of motorists' parking choice with variable travel demand is presented in this paper. The solution algorithm is also presented in the paper.