In order to reduce municipal waste generation at the source, it is important for the recycling rate and in-home disposal rate to rise. With regards to recycling, with the implementation of new systems in recent years, a generally supportive social consensus has formed. On the other hand, with regards to raising the in-home disposal rate, because of many factors that vary from region to region, it is difficult to achieve uniform progress in this area across the nation. Moreover, apart from regional differences there is also a certain amount of user opposition to be expected against efforts to transfer some of the burden of waste management costs to the individual user. In order for policy in this area to make progress, along with continuous development of waste management technology, it is important to make users aware of the costs involved and encourage them not just to consider waste management as a no-cost municipal service. Using the Double-Bounded DCCVM (Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Method), we have attempted to elucidate the value in monetary terms at which the users, or the demand side, estimate household solid waste disposal services to be worth-services which have been treated up until now as non-marketable. We have also attempted to elucidate factors that influence users' assessment of the benefit value of the services and to what degree these factors influence their willingness to pay for them. According to the results of this evaluation, the following points became clear. First, since waste management service is considered in economic terminology, as a superior goods of high necessity, the amount respondents were willing to pay tended to increase with income level. Secondly, there was a tendency for respondents who actively practiced waste reduction and who recognized waste disposal problems as serious to be more willing to pay for such services than those who did not. Also, respondents living in single dwelling unit homes displayed a lower willingness to pay than those living in multiple dwelling unit complexes such as apartments. Third, the factor of possible extended future benefit from the services (long term residence in Kitami City), proved to have a significant influence on the amount respondents were willing to pay for waste disposal services. Fourth, when the average amount that respondents indicated in the survey, they were willing to pay for waste disposal services was compared to the actual expenditure per household of Kitami City on household solid waste disposal, the former was found to be higher by an estimated absolute value of equivalent surplus of ¥12, 167 per household per year.
In this paper, we construct a general equilibrium urban model with cyberspace and physical space. In cyberspace, there is a virtual firm and it produces virtual goods. In physical space, a physical firm is located in the CBD and it produces physical goods. Our main interest is a relationship between cyberspace and physical space in a network city. Spatial structure of telecommunications and transportation networks in the city is also considered by numerical simulation. The spatial configuration of the city is determined through the general equilibrium. We show that two different equilibrium configurations emerge depending on the parameters.
It is thought that an increase in cereal production will eventually reach to a saturation point due to the fact that the area of global arable land has been almost unchanged since 1960. However, it is predicted that the demand for cereals will increase as the global population increases. It would be necessary for Japan to constantly monitor food production both in Japan and foreign countries and to secure necessary food supplies. The aim of this study is to predict the change in area and productivity of cereal cultivation that could be caused by global warming for a 50-100 year period in order to take measures to secure future food supplies. For prediction of global changes in the planted area and cereal production in longterm view caused by global warming over a 50-100 year period, we propose a method for the identification of suitable/potential regions for major cereal cultivation using satellite remote sensing data, weather (atmospheric temperature and precipitation) data and soil data. This method detects agricultural land-use locations using satellite remote sensing data, and then extracts suitable/potential regions for major cereal cultivation which meet the required conditions, i.e. the soil property, the temperature requirement and the moisture requirement. We applied this method to predict how the area of suitable/potential regions for major cereal cultivation globally would change under conditions of double the current CO2 concentration. We estimated the present area of suitable regions for major cereal cultivation to be 515 Mha (Million ha). Under conditions of double the current CO2 concentration, it was estimated that the area of suitable regions would be 279 Mha which represents a decrease of 46%. We estimated the present area of potential regions for major cereal cultivation to be 1, 333 Mha. We predicted that the area of potential regions under conditions of double the current CO2 concentration would be 1, 378 Mha, representing an increase of 3% over that of the area of present potential regions for major cereal cultivation. Using above results and the NPP (Net Primary Productivity), change in cereal production was estimated. It was predicted that the total NPP in the top 6 countries of cereal production would increase 70% caused by global warming. According to the prediction of change in NPP, it is unlikely that global warming results in the food shortage in the globe.
The rapid economic growth in the postwar Japan has caused the concentration of economic activities and population in a few metropolitan regions. Local regions have been losing their economic vitality due to the regional income disparities and population loss. With the aim of preventing excessive growth of metropolitan regions and correcting regional disparities, Japanese Government has sought to tackle regional problems by adopting three particular regional development policies; the construction of national network of transportation and communications which form the national land axis; the development of growth poles in local regions; and the relocation of industries from the metropolitan to the local regions. Various researches have been conducted to identify the structure of interregional migration in Japan and its determinant factors. As already pointed out in the literature on interregional migration, the effect of regional income differentials and the employment opportunity on migration have been a major concern of research. In this paper, main focuses are laid on the relationships between the interregional migration and the regional disparities in employment opportunity rather than the growth disparities in employment. The employment opportunity is defined by the number of jobs per labor force population in each region. The main hypothesis in this paper is that the disparities of employment opportunities had been a major determinant factor on interregional migration in Japan. It is empirically verified by using migration and employment data for 1960-90. The paper is divided into three main parts. First, industrial disparities in Japanese regions are examined by calculating the relative growth rates of employment opportunities by industrial sector and region for the years 1960-90. Second, the multidimensional scaling method is applied to interregional migration data for 1960-90 to identify the structure of interregional migration as well as to estimate the hidden distance between regions. Finally, the paper estimates the interregional migration model based on the logit model using factors on employment opportunity by industry and regional distance derived from the multidimensional scaling method. The main findings in the study have revealed that the interregional migration pattern had been stable during the study period and had a close ralationship with the employment opportunities in tertiary industries.
This paper presents a model of the distribution system as vertically related activities in which the wholesaler is a spatial monopolistic manufacturer and a retailer a competitive distributor owning independent unit stores. The manufacturer can make sales to all spatially separated retailers selling identical goods. The retailers are subject to Löschian competition while they are monopolists in their fixed market areas since each retailer conjectures hypersensitive rival reactions to own price changes. Part of the retailers contemplate organizing a chain of stores aiming to reduce their selling cost, management cost and physical distribution cost, which in turn tends to lower physical distribution cost for the manufacturer. The individual market radius, retail price and wholesale price in equilibrium depend on the cost structures of both the upstreamer and the downstreamers. We show that spatial competition under heterogeneous cost conditions due to chain operation induces an individual retailer's market radius to increase (decrease) and retail price to fall (rise), thereby increasing (decreasing) profits for individual chain stores (independent unit stores). A low cost operation of chain stores definitively raises wholesale price for independent unit stores, but such a strategy tends to raise the chain stores' burden share of physical distribution cost, which in turn lowers wholesale price for chain stores generally. In the process, both the profit for the manufacturer and the aggregate consumer surplus increase. The total social surplus increases with the establishment of chain stores-at the expense of remaining independent unit stores and their customers, however.
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the growth factor of regional economies (=47 prefectural economies) in Japan between 1975 and 1990. According to the result of the analysis, capital leading type is the most, that is 24 prefectures. TFP (Total Factor Productivity) leading type is 18 prefectures, capital and TFP leading type is 4 prefectures. Labor leading type is only one. In this connection, as for the growth factor in the average of all prefectures, the rate of the capital contribution is 40.7%, and the rate of the labor contribution is 16.1%, and the rate of TFP contribution is 43.2%. Next, I pay attention to the rate of TFP growth in 47 prefectures. The higher rate region is Siga (annual 3.03%), Chiba (2.91%), Okayama (2.17%), after all 17 prefectures are higher than the rate of TFP growth in the average of all prefectures. The other side, the lower rate region is Wakayama (-0.07%), Okinawa (0.51%), Nagasaki (0.62%). The difference between higher rate regions and lower rate regions about the rate of TFP growth is deeply related to the weight of the manufacturing at each regional economies.
The purpose of this paper is to analize the condition for even development between North and South, and to consider the state of sustainable growth within the extended framework of Krugman (1981) by adding renewable resource as the factor of manufacturing production. This paper presents two models. The first is small country model. The second is two regions model. The two regions model considers a world consisting of two regions, called North and South, both of which have two sectors, agricultureand manufacturing. The two regions are characterized by identical technology, endowed with a fixed amount of labor, and trade their products freely. The agricultural sector produces an agricultural commodity using labor and constant returns technology. The manufacturing sector produces a manufactured good using labor and capital and renewable resource and increasing returns technology. In the small country model, there is one region, called Small country, which assumed to be a price taker for a manufactured good. The other assumption is identical with the two regions model. The small countory model shows that necessary conditions for development is as follows: 1. rich renewable resources. 2. small estrangement from advanced countries. 3. high elasticity of resource price. The two regions model shows that necessary condition for even development is high elasticity of manufactured good price. And the case of no resource trade has higher possibility for even development compare with the case of trading in resource. The result of the case of even development lead to the conclusion that infinite accumulation of capital is impossible on condition that finite growth of resource. therefore the sustainable growth is to attain steady stateeconomy in which fixed amount of resource is throwed into production of a manufactured good and fixed amount of manufactured good are produced in every period.
Utilizing an endogenous open growth model with learning-by-doing and knowledge spillovers, we analyze the relation between the long-run economic growth and the balance of trade of a country whose imports consist of capital goods. In addition to this we distinguish the model into the market economy one and the planned growth one. The former has no social planner who controls the activities of the capital accumulation and the consumption of the economy. We derive some results. First, in the long-run equilibrium point, the planned growth one has higher levels of production, capital stock and consumption than those of market economy. But two models have the same growth rate of the variables and the rate is independent of propensity to export and import ratio of capital accumulation. Second, we point out that the balance of trade of market economy has a stronger tendency towards export surplus than planned growth one along the optimal path and also at the equilibrium point. Third, we show that, for both models, the trade balance always becomes surplus whenever the propensity to export has larger value than the import ratio of the capital accumulatios. But, even if in the opposite case, we present a possibility for the trade balance to turn surplus along the optimal growth path.
In recent years, in the local governments, cultural promotion policies are aggressively tried as the part of the area activation. For the corporation to shape and to execute a cultural policy, the data on fine quality for the policy execution is necessary. So far, a data having to do with cases are collected in the country and the local governments, too. However, data collections aren't done from the nationwide level by the statistical data. Also, it is by the actual condition that the analyses are hardly done. The investigation object number is 287 and a half event is held in the summertime. The active period is many about 1 week. Names such as “Festival, ” “The culture” and “The music” are often used and there are surprisingly few Katakana mottoes. As the holding place, there are most cultural facilities and there are few private facilities such as the hotel. The more cooperation with the artists concerned seems to become more necessary in the future with the local governments or the relation for the host organization, too. The active expenses are an average of 80 million yen but there is that many scattering is done. Also, there is little relation between the expenses and the number (the excursionist and so on) of the participants and it can not crawl generally when the excursionist gathers if multiplying expenses to be said to. Rather, it is possible to say the state of the area culture activity in the future that the fullness of the active contents connects with the area activation.
In this paper, we examine the behavior of local government which is supposed to get not only local taxes but also some kinds of national grant and to spend them into both recurrent expenditure (e) and public investment (I). We divide public capital (k) into two types: one type is public capital for consumption (kc) and another is public capital for production (ki). Local government receives a non-matching grant (g) and a matching grant for local public investment (gi=αI) and for local recurrent expenditure (ge=βe). In Japan, as local government cannot receive national grant at face value, we introduce discount rates of national grant for each type grants: a matching grant for local public investment and local expenditure. We build a dynamic model which is depending on these assumtions. We wil solve this model by applying maximum principle. At the long-run equilibrium point, we get a set of equilibrium values. Then we examine the effects of national grants.
This paper intends to show that the fiscal equalization effect of a local grant tax among prefectural governments became gradually small after the year in 1991, and change of operating way of a local grant tax system bring about such a change. This paper, first, reviews a function of a local grant tax. Then, we confirmed about the importance of a fiscal equalization function. Secondly, we examine regression analysis about the fiscal equalization effect of a local grant tax among prefectural governments by using 47 prefecture's data during 1976-93 years. Finally, we summarize the arguments by examining its implication as follows: (i) Fiscal equalization effect of a local grant tax among prefectural governments enlarged year after year during 1976-90 years, while that effect is gradually small after the year in 1991. (ii) Change of operating way of a local grant tax system promoting local independent public works, brings about such a change.
Seki city in Gifu prefecture has been nominated by the Ministry of Construction for the first model area of the large logistics nodes linked with major highways. This paper aims to unify some possible policies concerning logistics nodes and to establish the fundamental policy package for the expected large logistics nodes in Seki city to go in the right direction. First, I have discussed that strategic logistics, logistics nodes by guided public sector, global physical distribution, and network industries as well as global environmental problems, traffic problems and labor problems and others are important related factors. Then, I surveyed 10 case studies and several proposals by think tanks concerning logistics nodes. The main theme of this paper is a proposal of 12 action principles for establishing basic directions concerning constructing logistics nodes based on the qualitative analysis. The 3 administrative conditions and the proposed 12 action principles for constructing logistics nodes are interrelated to each other as follows: The essential conditions in the narrow sense for using effectively logistics nodes by public sectors 1. Offering customer services from consumers' point of view 2. Offering comfortable and safe living environment 3. Developing advanced management functions 4. Creating better business environment The important conditions toward the activation of whole regional societies 5. Enriching functions of advanced information base 6. Enriching functions of production and research & development 7. Globalization of local economy 8. Securing public acceptance in the local area 9. Utilizing traffic access The general conditions toward the development in the future 10. Enriching functions of career development 11. Establishing work incentive system 12. Securing flexibility of planning methods
(1) The trade flow coefficients make clear the differences of the domestic imports structure between Jawa and outside Jawa; Jawa has relatively high imports ratios in the agriculture, forestry, fishery and mining sectors, while the manufacturing and service sectors have low dependence on imports from other domestic regions. (2) The imports coefficients outside Jawa are rather high even in the light manufacturing sectors such as the food processing sector, the textile sector and so on, and thus the manufacturing sectors have not fully developed supplying capacities there. (3) The backward linkage effects are relatively high outside Jawa. On the contrary, they are lower in Jawa, because there is high dependence on foreign imports in Jawa, and there exists a biased domestic trade flow from Jawa to outside Jawa especially in the manufacturing sectors. (4) In respect to the forward linkage effect, the manufacturing sectors of Jawa have higher effects, and in Sumatra and Kalimantan, they are relatively high in some resource located industries such as chemical products and wood products, in which these regions have specialized. (5) The effects of the domestic import substitution are not always positive, but you see more than ten sectors with fairly high effects even in the manufacturing sectors; the highest effect, for example, is expected in the metal products sector of Sulawesi. (6) Foreign import substitution effects in general are larger than domestic effects, and they differ very much among regions and sectors. Finally the inter regional IO analysis depends on the estimated inter regional IO table. For a more reliable inter regional IO model, it would be very important to improve the estimation method and the data with trade flow.
This study aims at constructing a multisectoral regional econometric model for Niigata prefecture with special reference to exports to other regions, especially to Northeast Asia. The model has 33 sectors for production with a Leontief type input-output system combined with less disaggregated capital and labor markets of 5 sectors, including government capital stocks with four categories. Both sides of demand and supply are explicitly specified in the model with the adjustment mechanism of prices and demographic mobility. Two factors in the model play an important role in regional development: a. time distance and b. demographic stimulus. It is demonstrated that the government investment in capital stocks for transportation and communication has a significant impact on the expansion of the regional economy through shortening of time distance and enhancing productive efficiency. Also significant is the effect of population policy by the local government, since the multiplier of the population increase is greater than usually expected which tends to grow as a kind of synergy effect through the increase in labor supply and the expansion of consumption and investment. If an adequate policy package is implemented, it is suggested that Niigata's economy is likely to be stimulated by the improved linkage to Northeast Asia.
In this paper an optimal programming model is studied for the multi-project planning of the regional development. Since the regional planning includes various development projects, it is requested for planners to make the multi-project planning being effective and attractive for the regional development. First, to satisfy this request the model is formulated as the multi-project planning model under such restrictions as the budgeting restriction and the sequential restriction by the predetermined project undergoing and payment returning. There are 2 types of the sequential restriction, project undergoing sequence and payment returning sequence. It is very difficult to solve the optimal solution. However, in this paper, the algorithm that gives the optimal solution under such kind of sequential restriction is presented by the methematical way. Second, the algorithm to obtain an optimal solution of multi-project planning under the 2 types sequential restriction is developed in the same style as network planning and scheduling algorithm with the resource allocation problem under the resource restriction. The feature of the developed algorithm is, 1) The original network - the project undergoing network and the payment returning network - is divided to the groups that is consisted by the projects that can be undergone at the same time. This is called as “Cuts”. The original network can be reformed as the cuts sequence. This is called as “Cuts network”. 2) The schedule of projects can be obtained by checking feasibility of each resource allocation step by step using cuts and cuts sequence. 3) Two mathematical tools are used. The optimization in each cut is regarded as the knapsack problem. And the optimization in the cut network is regarded as to find the optimal path in the cut network. This can be solved by using the dynamic programming. At last, the model developed here is applied to practical regional development project planning problem in which 14 main projects are planned individually and the request to planner is to obtain optimal total schedule of 14 projects. It is confirmed that the model works well to obtain an optimal solution of the targed problem.
In the prior studies, they mainly used the regional input-output analysis in order to represent the economic circulation structure of the rural area in Japan. This method assumes the coherent economic area that have the industrial structure like meshes of a net. Accordingly this regional input-output table has the same framework as national input-output table. However most parts of rural area in Japan scarcely have the coherent industrial structure. That is why the regional input-output table for rural area in Japan does not fulfill its function enough. Because the industries in the rural area are hardly linked mutually and have large transactions the rest of area. So we cannot use regional input-output analysis generally, when we represent the economic circulation structure of the rural area in Japan. As mentioned above, the characteristic of the economic circulation structure of rural area in Japan is not “industry”. If anything, it is “multiple works-that is the diversity of income opportunity”. In this sense, we insisted in Ogura and Yamamoto (1996) that rural area social accounting matrix (SAM) is effective when we represent the economic circulation structure of the rural area in Japan. The purpose of this paper is the development of the rural area SAM, especially extension to environmental sector and public sector. Because these sectors are important in the rural area in Japan.
In this study a methodology for setting up “the regional management center” is discussed aiming at effective and efficient promotios of desirable regional comprehensive development from social, economical and environmental viewpoints. Making effects to establish well-communicating system among all participants, the regional management center is aimed to be set up as an organization which undertakes planning and management works for the regional development projects which is authorized in the master plan of urban development. The participants are local residents, local industries, newly locating business enterprises and municipal agencies concerned to the development projects. It is generally desired that various discussions are to be prepared in each planing and management process through implementation of development projects in order to obtain consensus about planning and management contents among all the involved participants. In this study several proposals to promote regional development efficiently and effectively are discussed. Through this discussion the functional organization which undertakes research, analysis, planning, coordination, presentation and all other management works is recognized to be very important to promote various development projects effectively under proter consensus among all the involved participants. In those proposals various kinds of system with function which provides the participants planning and management information for discussion and decision-making about planning and management contents are discussed logically and theoretically by introducing mathematical planning models and system simulation models. In the final stage of this study some actual methodological effects are shown through case study for setting up the regional management center at Maihara-cho in the north-east region of Shiga-prefecture.
There have been following important trends in the international trading relations since the post-war period, the increase in the high value added products of trade, the rise in the share of developing countries in the total world trade and the changes in the pattern of trade. The patterns of trade are considered have been changed from vertical to horizontal and also from inter-country to intra-industry, and intra-firm. It is for this reason, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the relations of international specialization of food industry in Asia. It will be analyzed from four sides. Firstly, the pattern of food trade in Asia will be indicated in this paper through the analyze of international input-output table. Secondly, the characteristics of Japanese food industry and its tendency of enlargement to develop abroad will be clarified. Thirdly, we will also analyze the relations of specialization among different types of development abroad of Japanese firms. Finally, the main composition of international specialization in food industry will be analyzed. The importance of distribution industry in international specialization will be indicated.
Recently ecological planning has been projected by government in Japan. Many kinds of techniques to conserve and to improve residential environment are introduced in ecological residential area. However their effect is not so clear not only physically but also economically. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evaluation method of Ecological housing development from the view point of residential benefit. We tried to evaluate residential environment of two ecological hosing development, the Nagamine District and the Nagaike District, in Tama New Town by using both CVM (Contingent Valuation Method) and qualitative analysis. CVM, which is economic environmental valuation method, asks individuals for willingness to pay to keep residential environment as their monetary value. Qualitative analysis asks them directly for the grade (from one to five) of their satisfaction. Qualitative analysis can prove what kind of environmental quality individuals are willing to pay for. Both residents of Nagamine and Nagaike there were no difference of social economic character. The results of assessment are as follows. Most residents in both districts are much satisfied their environment because the techniques to conserve and improve environment are so effective. The residents in Nagamine placed on high value on green area, open space, rain water percolation and recycling resources. Energy saving by solar system is main concept of this are, but it is not so affirmative. On the other hand, in Nagaike they appraised green area, open space, rainwater percolation and recycling, landscape preservation. The more residents were satisfied with their environment, the higher WTP was presented by them. CVM is effective to estimate of residential benefit.
ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) which enables drivers to go through a toll road toll gate without stopping to pay the toll started its early stage of R & D in 1994 in Japan. ETC has already been implemented in several major countries since early 1990s. Japanese ETC is unique and challenging because toll roads are interconnected and form a countrywide network. ETC should be interoperable and highly accurate in order to be usable in any toll road in Japan. Japanese toll road authorities formed a R & D committee and made a thorough joint research with ten selected private sectors. Field tests were done in the field of dedicated short range radio communications and other toll gate lane operation technologies. Besed on the results and analyses of the field tests, Japanese toll road authorities compiled Japanese ETC specifications and published. Initial procurement of the ETC system devices such as on-board radio communications equipment and roadside radio communications antenna is scheduled to start in FY 1998. ETC will bring about great benefits for drivers and even for national economies. ETC equipped car drivers can go through the toll gates without stopping to pay the toll and therefore traffic backups in the toll plaza will be remarkably reduced. This will save driver's valuable time and even contribute to the global environment of air pollution and energy saving. ETC car drivers also can enjoy convenience when payng toll because they do not have to prepare toll road tickets and cash or other toll payment cards. ETC is even benefitial for toll road authorities because ETC equipped lanes can be totaly automatic and therefore can save toll collector's labor costs. Japanese ETC has just started its first stage of implementation. The key factor for the success is how to popularize ETC among cost and price sensitive drivers. Thorough study should be done for the effective marketing strategies.
1. Info-Communications Infrastructure Growing in Sophistication and Diversity The info-communications infrastructure in Japan is growing in sophistication and diversity in recent years. In the arena of wired networks, digitalization of NTT's exchange systems was completed in 1997, and subscriber network circuits are being replaced by fiber-optic lines in expanding scale. ISDN service subscription is also increasing with the rising popularity of the Internet. In mobile communication networks, cellular telephone use is growing rapidly, and plans are under way toward increasing data transmission capacity. Broadcast networks have also seen the introduction of digital broadcasting via satellite and CATV. Preparations are also under way to pave the way to digitalization of ground wave broadcasting. 2. Government Action on Development of Info-Communications Infrastructure The driving force in development of info-communications infrastructure is the private business sector. The principal role of the government in development is to secure a competitive environment. For this reason, it has taken such measures as NTT's restructuring, establishing rules on interconnectivity, and deregulation. At the same time, low-interest loans are being made available for fiber-optic network development, and support given for development of info-communications infrastructure in areas where operation is unprofitable. Furthermore, the concept of universal service in telecommunications that had earlier focused only on the telephone will also be reviewed regarding its ideal state in the future. 3. Info-Communications and the Economy The steady growth every year in capital investment by the info-communications industry is keeping the Japanese economy afloat. In terms of contribution to GDP, info-communications investment compares viably with that in the United States. In addition, the multiplier effect it produces is estimated to be larger in impact than conventional public investment. Both on the demand side and supply side, info-communications is believed to contribute immensely to greater productivity. With the ongoing changes in the employment structure, etc. in Japan, the effect of this productivity increase is expected to be felt in the future. Furthermore, the Internet and other info-communications media are expected to play a major role in expanding business opportunities for small businesses in regional economies. To realize such opportunities, it may, for example, become necessary to set up a suitable advisory system offering counseling on use of such media.