The United Nations Economic and Social Council recommends that member States consider using the 1993 SNA as the international standard for the complication of their national accounts statistics. Economic Planning Agency of Japanese Government is now trying to use the 1993 SNA as the standard for their review of national accounts. The 1993 SNA embodies many new features. Many of the important ones can be summarized as aspects of updating, clarifying and simplifying, and harmonizing. But the 1993 SNA did not indicate the standard system of the regional accounts. The 1993 SNA says that three types of institutional units have to be considered in the context of regional accounts. First, there are regional units, the centre of interest of which is in one region and most of their activities take place in this region. Secondly, there are multi-regional units, the centre of interest of which is in more than one region but does not relate to the country overall. Finally, a small number of nuits are national units, which means that thier centre of interest is really not located geographically even in the sense of multi-regional location. Locating transactions of the regional institutional units does not raise any conceptual problem. These units are clearly regional resident units. Allocating the transactions of multi-regional units between various regions raises more difficulties. Part of the transactions of multi-regional units is not regionalizable, in conecpt. The location of national institutional units raises more complex issues. In their case, breaking down their centre of interest between all the regions is conceptually dubious. These units do not seem properly regionalizable. One may think of allocating all transactions of multi-regional units or even national units between regions according to some rules of thumb. However, this should not be considered simply as a practical approximation. It implies a conceptual adaptation of the System. Which mean, in principle, building up a full set of accounts for establishments. Japanese prefectual accounts is using the method of building up a full set of accounts for establishments. So Japanese prefectural accounts is not under the SNA. But we think this method have a practical usefulness. We should use this method for the present. According to this idea, we must fill up the system of prefectural accounts which is the core of Japanese regional accounts. For this purpose, we must form the new system of prefectural accounts that focus a few main accounts. Every prefectures must be effort to advance the date of delivery of this system. Secondary, we must make up the supplemental system of prefectural accounts. The supplemental system consists of two types of regional accounts system. The ffrst is the system of regional accounts for cities, towns, and villages. Though many cities, towns, and villages are now making regional accounts, but there are a few cities, towns, and villages do not make the accounts. Every cities, towns, and villages must make up the accounts. The second is the system of regional accounts for blocks that consist of group of prefectures. It focuses to catch for interregional transaction. This system is made by division of national accounts, so we can have the information of regional economy so early than the prefectural accounts.
The regional production technology is described in the input coefficient of the regional input-output system, and it is possible to grasp regional production technology by decomposing the input coefficient. In this study, we propose a new grasp method of the regional production technology by using the information incorporated in the input coefficient. This method is derived from decomposing the structure of input coefficient. Then, we define the difference in the patterns of decomposed input coefficient between the whole country and the region as regional characteristic of the production technology structure. The second, we propose an analytical method of regional input-output structure by using a new grasp method of the regional production technology. This analytical method is effective in analysing the regional characteristic of input-output structure.
The public transportation system in many areas of low dense and dispersed urban functions in Japan has suffered a severe decline. In particular, the bus system in rural and urban areas with decrease in population and advance of motorization has remarkably decayed. Under this circumstance, the mobility of the people who are not available to drive an automobile is going to reduce through the decline of the bus transportation service. Thus, the study of bus system in the areas has become an important and urgent topic of discussion in regional transportation planning. The purpose of this paper is to make the bus use characteristics in the areas clear, and to reorganize the long distance bus system corresponding to the bus demand Structure. The data for analysis, in which 756 households and 1, 772 people are contained, are obtained by the comprehensive bus transportation survey conducted at Tano Rural and Urban Area, Gunma Prefecture. Why we chose this area was because the average number of cars per family was ranked in the first in Japan, and the bus routes had long distance system with curiosity. Based on the investigation of the present and future sitiuation of bus use and the mind, this paper clarified the bus use mechanism and the demand structure. As a result, the proper long distance bus system was derived, and the other some suggestions were given for improving the public transportation system in the rural and urban areas with decrease in population and advance of motorization.
This paper proposes two types of on-site Poisson regression models to forecast the number of visitors to city center retail environment that correct the choice-based bias due to on-site sampling. One is the modified on-site weighted Poisson regression model and the other the truncated on-site weighted Poisson regression model. While the previous weighted Poisson regression model is formulated to require additional information not obtained from on-site survey, the novelty in these two models is in our proposed method that makes them estimable without any extra information other than on-site survey. We have applied these two models to the actual case of Fukuoka City and evaluated the accuracy of parameter estimates in comparison with those obtained from the usual Poisson regression model based on exogenous sampling data. The major findings are as follows: First, three explanatory variables are strongly significant to account for the number of visitors to the city center. They are the time distance from home to city center, the shop floor area both at city center (destination) and at residential area (origin). Second, the values of parameter estimates obtained from the modified on-site weighted Poisson regression model are accurate enough to be within the range of one standard deviation of those parameters obtained from the usual Poisson model based on exogenous sampling. With these results, the on-site Poisson regression modeling is shown to be an effective and promising method for forecasting the number of visitors to city center retail environment.
In recent years, travel pattern has been diversified in Japan, and it is required to forecast the travel demand appropriately by considering the situations of a society. In this study, we focus on the urban travel behavior of workers on a workday and a non-workday, and aim to build a model of trip generation for discretionary trips. After an analysis of data obtained from a survey of the actual urban travel behavior on a workday and a non-workday, we propose a new hypothesis on the trip generation mechanism of a worker. The hypothesis states that there exist a common factor which affects the generation of discretionary trips both on a workday and a non-workday, and that workday and non-workday trips are mutually influenced. Then, by applying a covariance structure model we examine the hypothesis and estimate the effects of various factors on the generation of urban discretionary trips. As a result of analysis, it was found that there exist common factors which affect travel behavior both on a workday and a non-workday as well as factors which are specific to a workday and a non-workday. It was also found that effects of transport service levels on the generation of discretionary trips are significant especially on a non-workday.
This paper discusses the channel selection or exclusive contracts of trading companies under cost uncertainty. An exclusive contract is a basic contract concluded by a trading company as an importer with a specific manufacturer. The trading company generally uses an exclusive contract to do business with the same subcontracted manufacturer. The verticality that a trading company establishes by concluding an exclusive contract is considered to be an effective contract system to reduce the transaction costs of the trading company. However, the organization of a trading company affected by overseas markets can be regarded as a sort of information system because the company's economic conditions are always uncertain. Most of the preceding studies regarding channel selection under uncertainty assume that economic organizations are not affected by risks and do not think of distributors as risk-averters. This paper assumes that a trading company which pays the importer duties and a manufacturer which purchases production components are both risk-averse. It analyzes why channel selection or exclusive contract of the trading company is constructed in connection with information communication systems. The analysis results are as follows. (i) When comparing an exclusive contract with a nonexclusive contract, the collection of overseas market information by a trading company increase manufacturer's and trading company's expected payoff. (ii) The variance values of the prices of a production components that the trading company purchases and the risk aversion determine whether the trading company should conclude an exclusive contract, i.e., a channel selection. The results obtained from this discussion must be further analyzed in terms of generality. However, they are considered to give an interesting suggestion when studying exclusive contracts of trading companies in management history.
A lot of theoretical, empirical researches have been done about the traffic assignment problem with road network which uses the traffic equilibrium theory so far. It can be said that it reached a considerably practicable stage. However, the forecast of the change in the time required and the link traffic according to the type of car are necessary and indispensable to pursue the improvement of the assignment accuracy of the model. By the way, we have attached importance to the static traffic assignment problem for the constant flow pattern at all day using traffic assignment model adapted recently. However, traffic is variable according to the change of time in the same road section. Therefore, to operate the road network efficient, the technique by which the traffic change in time can be described is needed. In the model by which a time change of traffic is handled, there are a dynamic assignment model and hourly user equilibrium assignment model. The former is an assignment model which is expressed momentary flow pattern specifically, so it is not a practicable technique in a large-scale road network. The latter is an intermediate model between static and dynamic. In addition, acoording to the idea of a little big interval of time (time-band), the state change between time-bands is treated as a dynamic assignment, and the traffic flow is treated as a static assignment. In this study we classify the traffic into two single classes each constant time-band, assign to the Nagoya city road network including expressway using multi-vehicle class hourly user equilibrium traffic assignment models, and examine reproducibility of the current state of the model by comparing the assignment results with the survey value.
This paper presents a model of vertical market structure under successive monopsony in addition to the models such as successive monopoly, retail price maintenance and vertical integration which are preeminent in the literature. The wholesaler and the retailer are considered as a monopolistic manufacturer and a monopolistic distributor respectively. Whoever takes the leadership of the two parties provides vertical structure of the market, which in turn allows double marginalization or single marginalization for one party only. We show that a shift of leadership from manufacture to retailer does not necessarily lower retail price, and vice versa. Retail price is lowest if one party's intitiative becomes so powerful that only he can conduct single marginalization whether he is the upstreamer or the downstreamer. In case each party marginalizes, retail price is lower when the retailer (the manufacturer) takes the lead if the increasing rate of marginal cost of production is relatively small (great). The lower (smaller) the retail price (total margin for the two parties), the greater the total profit for them and social surplus. On the other hand, the greater the individual margin for the retailer (the manufacturer), the lower the retail price provided that the increasing rate of marginal cost of production is relatively small (great) under conditions of double marginalization. But the greater each individual margin for the retailer (the manufucturer), the greater the corresponding individual profit regardless of the increasing rate of the marginal cost.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of teleworking on the overcentralization to a large city. In Japan, urban population suddenly increased with economic growth after World War II, and about 60% of the total population lived in urban area in 80's. Office demand increased with office automation in the latter half of 80's, and land values remarkably gone up. As a result, the remarkable rise of land value brought many problems such as aggravation of house circumstances or expansion of the asset difference. On the other hand, an advance of communication technologies makes dispersion of an office by telework possible, and is hoped that it relaxes city concentration. One of the theoretical subjects in recent urban economics is explaining spatial agglomeration by micro-economic theory. In a problem of this kind, it is important to explain what kind of interaction among firms and households cause spatial agglomeration. Starrett  describes that agglomeration in the homogeneous space cannot happen under perfect competition. On this account two methods explaining spatial agglomeration are picked up in Fujita and Thisse . One is a method by (I) externalities under perfect competition, and the other is a method by (II) imperfect competition. Following the terminology of Scitovsky, type I explains spatial agglomeration with “technological externality”, and type II explains it with “pecuniary externality”. Furthermore, type II is divided into (II-1) increasing returns under monopolistic competition and (II-2) spatial competition under strategic interaction. In most cases, these both externalities cause the spatial agglomeration of economic activity. Both are different in the work. On this account it is important theoretically to analyze separately. The model of type I has been developed by many researchers to explain spatial structure in a city. In a model of this type, non-market interactions, for example, communications between corporations or individuals or spill over of knowledge or information, generate the fundamental power of spatial agglomeration. By development of communication technology the same level interactions occur without agglomeration, some merit of agglomeration does decrease and agglomeration power is weakened. A model of type II contributes to advance of recent urban economics. It is developed mainly on the monopolistic competition model (type II-1) on the industrial organization theory, for example, Spence  and Dixit and Stiglitz . Krugman  shows that agglomeration power of a corporation is strengthened by decrease in the transportation costs between two regions. Actually, preparation of road net is regarded as the big factor which promoted over-centralization to a large city. In this paper, we show that development of communication technology does not prevent over-centralization. The spread of telework or satellite office decreases a commuting cost for households or corporations. Decrease in commuting costs become the increase for income of households and the decrease for costs of corporations. On this account, total consumption increases and some new corporation entry. Finally, the agglomeration power of a corporation is strengthened.
In this paper, we try to propose a regional planning approach for reducing the damage by airplane accident. We first survey the concept of region in the ICAO Airport Work Manual and some airport emergency plans in Japan. The region can be defined as such areas as the stricken area, the possibility stricken area and the two kind of backup area (surrounding functional area and the surrounding administrative area). However they have partitioned either spatially or juristically, it needs to develop the method for evaluating and partitioning the backup area. Secondly we apply the Related Tree Method to evaluate the regional potential concerned with rescue activity in the backup area. As the result of the case study, the difference in regional potential among surrounding areas has clarified. As for the airport located at offshore, the potential of the backup area should be re-evaluated by the criteria different from those for the ordinary airports. Thus the characteristics of airport itself and its surrounding area should be taken into account for rescue activity planning as well as commercial and development ones.
In this paper, I construct an equilibrium model of a system of cities in physical space and cyberspace. There are two kinds of cities, physical and virtual cities. Each type of city specializes in the production of a different traded goods. In the physical city, a physical firm is located in the CBD and it produces physical goods. Virtual cities don't have the CBD. The locations of virtual cities are endogenously determined. Cyber workers work at their homes and produce goods traded through telecommunication networks. A virtual firm produces virtual goods using the products of cyber workers in cyberspace. This study shows that four different spatial configurations of virtual cities emerge depending on the transportation and telecommunication costs by numerical simulation.
When consumer spatial behavior is analyzed, the shopping destination is often caught at either of three hierarchical levels, which is “Individual shop”, “Commercial accumulation”, and “City”. Today, importance of the trade area analysis at the City-level increases, for the consumer spatial behavior is extended by extension of traffic network and the motorization. When the trade area of central shopping district at city-level is analyzed, it is indispensable to understand “Attractiveness, which means power to attract the consumer” of city or central shopping district. In this paper, I do an empirical study concerning a determinant Attributes of the attractiveness of a central shopping district in Tokyo using consumer's interaction data. First, a quantitative measurement of the attractiveness of a central shopping district (such as “Ginza” and “Shinjuku”) is done by Huffs type spatial interaction model using the empirical data concerning the consumer spatial interaction. Next, I analyze a regulated attribute of the attractiveness of a central shopping district by the regression analysis. As a result of the analysis, it becomes clear that the attractiveness of a central shopping district is composed of two Attributes. The first is “Retail selling area” by which the scale of a central shopping district is expressed. The second is “Accessibility” by which a relative location of a central shopping district is expressed. Moreover, when the residual is examined closely, it was suggested that a qualitative factor, like the image of a central shopping district influence the attractiveness of a central shopping district.
In order to study and to forecast how the Northeast and the Rest of Brazil economies would behave in a Mercosur context, from 1992 to 2014, a combination of two models was used: a) a macroeconometric model of the Brazilian economy that gives forecasts for the macro variables; and b) a two regions interregional input-output model that provides results at the level of sectors in each region, as well as transactions among the regions and the external markets (divided into Mercosur and Rest of the World). The initial set of input-output data for the interregional model is for the year of 1992. The results from the macroeconometric model are used as a guideline in the interregional model such that the results obtained in this model must be consistent with the ones obtained in the first model. In general the results show that in the Mercosur context the impact on the Rest of Brazil region will be greater than the one on the Northeast region, and at the same time this impact will be concentrated in a small set of sectors.