When a multi-regional and multi-asectoral economy exists, there are many input-output tables at different levels of aggregation. A nm-dimension table for n-regions and m-sectors, a n-regions table, a m-sectors table and finally a one-region and one-sector (or a multiplier). This paper discusses how these tables can be consistent each other and what are the consistence conditions when final demand changes. First paper clarifies the conditions of consistent aggregation when bottom up approach is adopted, and shows the prediction errors in traditional calculation based on a numerical example. Then it discusses a decision problem in top-down approach, and finally the roles of technological difference and hysteresis in consistency approach.
The aim of this study is to examine about the hourly traffic assignment method when the user equilibrium model is applied to the road network including expressway. The toll road including expressway have a lot of features unlike the surface street. For example, the running speed is faster, the capacity of the road is larger and toll is necessary. So we cannot treat it like the surface street equally without some process. In this study, the toll resistance method (toll is converted by time value) and the diversion rate method for the expressway are used as the way of dealing with this problem. Well, this study analyzes the traffic prediction of Nagoya City in the morning peak hours by using the road network around the Nagoya City, and compares two methods. According to the assignment results, the time value is 60.5 yen/person/minute by the toll resistance method, and 40.0 yen/person/minute by the diversion rate method for the expressway. According to the questionnaire investigation, the time value is 62.5 yen/person/minute. So the result of the toll resistance method is close to that of the questionnaire investigation.
The analysis of this paper was originated by Brander and Spencer (1985) who proposed a three-country and one commodity model that two countries compete the commodity share in a third country market. They argued in their analysis that export subsidies enhance the country welfare, and supported trade under strategic trade policies rather than free trade. Mai and Hwang (1989) considered the Brander and Spencer model but with a labour-managed firm in one country and concluded that export tariffs are effective in order to raise the social welfare of a labour-managed country. Then, our next and interesting task is to investigate what sort of policies is effective if both countries are labour-managed. We will focus on this topic. Being different from the previous works of Brander and Spencer (1985) and Mai and Hwang (1989), it will be shown that the optimal trade policy is not uniquely determined. Which is optimal between an export subsidy and export tariff relies on the relation of the slope of the foreign reaction curve to that of the home isowelfare curve.
The number of dwelling units in condominiums throughout Japan is 3.85 million and about 11 million people are living in these units1). After ten years from now, the number of dwelling units in condominiums that will have passed more than 30 years after construction and will face rebuilding problems will reach 1 million units. Rebuilding of condominiums has a number of difficult problems. In this paper, we will clarify the problems hampering rebuilding of condominiums through (1) investigation of the registration of 2, 303 units in 34 decrepit condominiums in the Minato and Koto Wards of Tokyo, (2) a questionnaire to the residents of 1, 510 units, and (3) simulations of rebuilding on the model of three condominiums. And, in view of the fact that many elderly persons are opposed to rebuilding because of a limited amount of funds, we will also make a proposal of techniques to regenerate urban environment by means of a new reverse mortgage system as one of the solutions to such fund problems.