Urban or metropolitan area which results from the concentration of population is due to the existence of economies of scale or agglomeration. At the same time, however, with urban concentration, urban area expands to the outside of the city. Such expansion of urban area generates inner city decay and suburban sprawl. Faced with such problems, many countries have adopted urban growth control policies. Greenbelt is one of the growth control measures. It was established by England first, many countries (e. g. Korea and some regions of Australia, Canada and New Zealand) adopt the policy now. The main purpose of greenbelt is not only to control the urban expansion but also to preserve the natural environment. In this paper, we introduced the congestion externality in the closed city model and examined the optimal size of greenbelt when it is a pure public good. In addition, we investigated the social effect of greenbelt. The results are as follows. The condition of optimal size of greenbelt satisfies Samuelson condition. The size that maximizes the total profit of landowners is socially optimal. Finally, the stronger the preference for greenbelt, the larger the size of greenbelt; the stronger the preference of private good or lot size, the smaller the size of greenbelt; the higher the household income, the larger the size of greenbelt; the higher the transport cost, the smaller the size of greenbelt.
This paper describes the relationship between the character of the rural area and the digital divide. The analysis was carried out by analyzing the social economic indexes (22 total) which influence the character of the community in cities, towns and villages in Kumamoto Prefecture. Three synthetic indexes are devised with the principal component analysis. The first component was the structure of industry. The second component was the scale of communication area. The third component was the ability of green tourism. Calculating the synthetic index which shows the level of regional information systems, the regression analysis with principal components reveals the following contributory factors in the development of regional information systems: the first principal component which shows a difference in the structure of industry. The digital divide in rural areas is expanding because the social economic scale is small, and there is little tertiary industry in underdeveloped and depopulated areas. The telework center which is the infrastructure of the telecommunication can support regional information systems in rural areas.
It is very desirable and important for urban comprehensive planning to make assure smooth traffic flows in urban area produced by various social and economical urban activities. In this study traffic congestion problem and relating problems caused by newly developed large-scale shopping center in urbanized district are focussed from the urban planning point of view. For analyzing mutual relationship among improvement of traffic facilities, development of urban facilities and activation of social and economical urban activities which has strong relation with traffic behaviors from the systematic viewpoint, it is requested theoretically to implement various system analyses about the mechanism of traffic behaviors in actual urban activities aiming to establish an effective recognition and system or mathematical modeling of this mechanism. This study developed an effective and practical planning model for planning and designing traffic and urban facility which can break up above problems caused by visitors and passenger in the district around the shopping center. The planning model discussed here consists of two different types of system model combined mutually from the planning functional viewpoint as follows: The first is a traffic simulation system model to obtain traffic condition under such existing or planned condition of traffic facility and facilities of the shopping center as physical conditions of street faced the shopping center location and scale of parking and location of entrances of shopping center. The second is the optimal planning and designing model aiming to obtain desirable plan and design of traffic facility faced to the shopping center and the shopping center facilities related to in and out traffic flow which can break up or reduce effectively urban problems around the center and can also secure safety in movement of behavior by pedestrians and visitors around there. Finally, the planning model is applied to the practical case of large-scale shopping center at Seta of Otsu-city of Shiga-Prefecture in Japan. On this case study, the planning model is formulated for improving visitors' and passengers' behaviors comfortably and safely. And the planning model developed in this study works very well giving effective information for planning and design of the traffic facilities and the facilities of shopping center.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the Indonesia's inter regional linkages with the regional SAM. For this purpose, we estimated a regional social accounting matrix of Indonesia for the year 1995, which has 75 sectors of account and three divided regions of Indonesia; Sumatra, Java and the rest of Indonesia. The whole system of SAM can be decomposed into four subsystems, three endogenous and one exogenous: production factors, institutions, production activities and everything else. Three endogenous groups of the accounts derive their incomes from initial injections into the economy through multiplier processes. The multiplier matrix of SAM can be decomposed, as is well known, into multiplicative or additive components; an intra group effects, an inter group effects and an extra group effects. At first, we calculate the multipliers and then the traditional multiplier analysis of SAM is carried out by using the regional SAM of Indonesia. Secondly, we examine the input-output linkages between two different regions by way of the third regions with the regional SAM. They can be even used to calculate not only regional repercussions effects but also inter group repercussions effects, if you permute the regional SAM according to division of regions prior to group division of accounts. The inter regional linkages are also decomposed with the group effects of SAM, which makes the transmission mechanism of inter regional linkages much more clear and concrete. This is called the cross effects analysis of the inter regional and inter group repercussion effects. The cross effects analysis is applied for the Indonesia's regional economy using the complex input coefficient, which was worked out by Ihara . We have calculated complex input coefficients between all the three regions of Indonesia and decomposing them into 3 group effects for finding their transmission processes, but the coefficients only by way of Java are found to be economically significant. The results show that Indonesia still has a distinct Java-concentrated characteristic in all aspects of Indonesian economy, and that Java takes a role of transmitting and amplifying, to some extent, the input-output linkages between the other regions of Indonesia.
In this paper, we consider an allocation problem of orbits in outer space and within the electromagnetic spectrum. Telecommunications satellites use two kinds of resources: space in orbit and frequency band. A conceptual model of outer space is developed to examine the optimal allocation problem. The optimal location of a system of satellites in outer space is derived. It is shown that the shadow price of outer space is a decreasing function of altitude.
In this study, we argue the implementability of the Kyoto Protocol. It is estimated that the Japanese economy should have had reduced the emission level of the air pollutants by 23.4% less than the actual level in 1997 in order to clear the standard given by the protocol and we show how much we could reduce the emission of the air pollutant (CO2, SOx and NOx) in 1997. We present an input-output model which determines the optimal level of economic activities and their optimal emission of air pollutants so as to maximize the welfare function being subject to the emission standards of the air pollutants with respect to the emission taxes. And we formulate a model of the total environmental economic system which controls the air pollutants emitted by not only industries but also households. The fundamental of the model is the nonlinear dual system of the input-output analysis. It is shown in this research that the emission taxes themselves alone are not so effective for sufficient reduction in the emission of air pollutants contrary to the advocacy and technological progress in the abatement of air pollutants is needed to clear the Kyoto Protocol.
The studies of common-pool resources (CPRs) like forests, plains, rivers and marines are the key factor to examine the local governmental and socio-economic inferiority problems. In this research, we have shed lights on the Onga River Basin in order to investigate how to attain the sustainable growth paths on which the natural environments can be preserved. The origin of the industrial development in the Onga River Basin started from the establishment of the state-operated steel industry in 1901. The mountains around the Onga River Basin had provided plenty of coals and it became one of the richest regions due to the prosperous coal industry in Japan. After the World War II, however, the switching of the energy resource from coal to oil has deteriorated the economic situation of this region drastically. The high population density and the slack inflow from the ruins of coal mining into the water have caused the Onga River's highly visible pollution. Even now this area faces the serious economic and environmental problems. That is why the residents, the local governments and firms in the Onga River Basin are keen to reconstruct the economic situation without distracting CPRs. By using the networking model, it has been proved that the regional networking channels can be useful procedures to attain the regional industrial development harmonized with the environment and livelihood. To clarify the current situation of the regional environmental strategies, we have visited 30 local governments and asked questions to the focused on three points: (i) the current positions and perspectives of economic and environmental issues, (ii) the expected effects of the regional network channels, or inter-regional cooperation, on the environmental preservation, and (iii) the administrative procedures for promoting and enforcing the regional network channels. Many administrators still want to pursue an old-fashioned, growth-oriented type of regional development. However, they have been aware of not only the risk of illpolluted rivers but importance of preserving the natural resources and environments. Investigations show us that inter-relations between administrations and residents are the keys to implement incentives of the people for conserving the nature. They also imply that the regional networking is expected to be an effective procedure, which can reconstruct the ecosystem around the Onga River Basin. We have found that there are still difficult problems to be overcome in promoting and enforcing the regional network channels. As for the software-side, we need more effective systems by which the residents can easily access and assess the environment education or information. The hardware-side procedure must include the reforms of current administrative structure and local finance system. It must be essential for the local governments in the Onga River Basin to make and strengthen the regional network channels not only to recover the community function among self-supported residents but also to rebuild the damaged relationship of mutual faith among governments, firms and residents. The enhanced regional networks will establish their identity enforcing historical and cultural consciousness.
Technology transfer is one of the reasons for host economies to welcome FDI. However, quite often we hear disappointments by the host economies as to the realization of technology transfer. In this paper, we focus on the effect of Japanese direct investment in Korea. We estimate the improvement of overall productivity of Korean manufacturing sector due to Japanese direct investment. The over all productivity is measured by the Total Factor Productivity. We estimate the rate of change of TFP for Korean manufacturing industry. We then decompose the TFP growth into three factors, namely (1) shift in cost function, (2) scale effect, and (3) effect of FDI, based on the estimates of the translog cost function. For the period of 1972-95, average annual growth rate of TFP was 3.66 per cent. It was found that during early days of FDI, foreign capital ratio had negative effect on TFP growth. The negative effect became smaller in the 80s, and then in 90s it turned to positive. This may be interpreted that it takes time to foreign firms to operate at full efficiency. More straight interpretation is also possible. That is, during early period, FDI was to take advantage of lower wage of the host country and not a vehicle of technology transfer of advanced production technology. In later years the nature of FDI shifted with the change of management strategy to put emphasis on global optimal allocation of production facilities and specialization at global level. It is important to know that the effect of FDI was not the same throughout the analysis period. It may work as a vehicle of technology transfer as well as tool of exploitation of low wages. In this paper, it was found that Japanese direct investment may have shifted from the latter to former in nature in the 90s.
In China, there are big disparities in economy between eastern region, middle and western region. It is said that, the big disparities are caused mainly by non-state-owned enterprises, especially township enterprises. Whether this conclusion is correct or not, let us take a deep look on it. It fact, until 1979, the state-owned enterprises in former developed region take up to 39% of the country's state-owned industry, about two times of that in the former undeveloped region. In contrast to this situation, the non-state-owned industry, about one and half times of that in the former developed region. Moreover, from 1979-1994, the non-state-owned enterprises increased by 22.2% in former developed region, this figure ranks the top in China. However, in former developed region, the non-state-owned enterprises only increased by 2.9% about the half of the average increasing rate all over the country. Furthermore, considering of the contribution of the industry development to economy. In the former developed region, the development of the state-owned enterprises contribute 17.5% only. Contrary to this figure, in the former undeveloped region, the development of the non-state-owned enterprises contribute about 53%. Then, whether the development of the non-state-owned township enterprises has played the major role in former the big disparities between eastern, middle and western regions in China? Subsequently, whether the development of the non-state-owned township enterprises is the key factor that causes the big disparities of the revenue in eastern, middle and western regions in China? In this study, I analyzed the relationship between the regional disparities and the development of the township enterprises in the later 80′ Also, I discussed the importance of the development of the township enterprises in reducing the regional disparities. This paper is divided into five parts. Part one: the overview of the township enterprises in China. Part two: analysis of the regional disparities. Part three: the status of the township enterprises in different regions. Part four: relationships between the development of the township enterprises and the regional differences. Part five: conclusion.
1. Definition of Interregional Payment Balances In general, International Balance of Payments is composed by both of Current account and, Capital and Financial Account under definition of International Monetary Fund. Current account is composed by Goods and services, Income and Current transfers. On the other hand, Capital and Financial Account is shown by Financial Account which is composed by Direct investment, Portfolio investment, Other investment and Capital Account. Domestic Payment Balances are also shown by application of the factors as well as International Payment Balances. It should be really explained “Interregional Payment Balances (IPB)” like presenting in the next paragraph. In Japan, one of IPB has been presented by the Agency of Economic Planning as “each exports and each imports of 47 prefectures” in every year. Another one has been presented by the Ministry of the International Trade and Industry as “Input-Output Table among 11 regions in Japan”. They, however, don't present the Money Flow based on IPB. Really, the Money Flow in relation with IPB had been presented by the Bank of Japan (BOJ) so far, but the BOJ had not presented since after burst of bubble economy 1990's, and not doubtfully, though it had been great important for analysing of regional economies Japan. Therefore, research for regional Economies based on IPB might not be able to attain perfection. This paper is presented within these limits. 2. The implication of Interregional Payment Balances The implication of IPB was originally described by John R. Meyer, in “Regional Economics: A survey, The American economic review, 1963”, in which it was inttroduced Interregional Payment Balances of trade, 1952, by G. Fruetel. It had implicated Balances of trade among each States of America. In this sense, IPB can be considered that they are indicators of the regional economic growth and regional economic equilibrium as well as the external indicators. In general, IPB will be the surplus and higher level if the regional economy is rather powerful than others. According to this significance, it points out that IPB might have competitive power in the regional economies. 3. The implication of Interregional Payment Balances in Japan One of IPB in Japan has been presented by the Agency of Economic Planning as being described above, and it has been shown as exports and imports among 47 prefectures in Japan. The importance is because Income Level and IPB among 47 prefectures deeply relate with each other. The regression equation of Income Level and IPB in 1995 is calculated as follows. When horizontal line is X as Income Level and vertical line Y is as IPB, Y=90.265+0.732X This regression equation is a straight line and coeffient determination is 0.5575, which is high in an average. According to above, IPB in Japan can be certainly certified in relation to regional economic power, Income Level, economic growth, per capita production and so on. From these analysing, it has been realized in Japan that IPB of the central prefecture has been great surplus while IPB of the peripheral prefectures has been big dificits. As a result, it certifies the peripheral prefectures depend on the governmental subsidiary, that is, they can't stand on a self support system yet.
To prevent environmental degradation, we should had use environment-friendly goods, considering their convenience. In a specific country, plastic bags are used for milk packages and it is said to be environment-friendly. In this study, we assessed environmental impact of plastic bags compared with paper cartons in life cycle and studied the possibility of their introduction in Japan. We found a consequence that plastic bags emitted less CO2 and NOx in life cycle. We conducted a scheduled questionnaire for investigation and found that consumers were concerned about environment but they tended not to buy plastic bag commodities unless they were cheaper than paper cartons. We got opinions from sellers and found that plastic bags were inconvenient compared with paper cartons and it was difficult to sell plastic bag commodities in cheaper price than that of paper cartons. Plastic bags can be seen to be more environment-friendly than paper cartons but we can say if we introduce them in Japan, they will not be spread without any measure. In questionnaire investigation, about 40% of respondents opined that they chose plastic bags even plastic bag commodities and paper cartons were in same price. So, plastic bag commodities need to be sold at the same price as paper cartons for diffusion. Moreover, it is helpful for diffusion of enhancing consumers'zest forward plastic bags. It is to be desired that packages are simplified and selling commodities by a new measurement system should be examined further.
In this paper, I analyse the optimal pricing of transport services in the case where income cannot be distributed between individuals, Nowlan (1993) calculates an optimal price that maximises the social welfare function. However, he fails to compare the optimal price for the unequal income case with that for the equal income case, because of lack of an explicit model for individual behaviour. In this paper a more complete model is presented, which simplifies Nowlan's model and adds individual utility naximization under budget constraint. Then optimal prices for equal income and unequal income cases are compared.
The aim of this note is to show the implications of tax law complexity concerning the parties who face a tax dispute. While the tax auditor tries to prevent tax evasion and to ensure that taxpayers pay the right amount of tax, there are times when the auditor and the taxpayer do not agree on what legal amount of tax is. As the result of analyzing this situation in which a taxpayer and an auditor interact strategically, the divergence between the amount of tax increases through the complex of the law and, with the complexity, the parties can agree on what amount of a revised return is.
As the result of the deregulation of well-head natural gas markets and the restructuring of the natural gas pipeline industry during the 1980s and 1990s, the natural gas volume and nominal price of supply have varied widely over the industry. In the years before interstate pipelines connected the gas production areas to distant markets, gas was considered so abundant as to be almost worthless. Now competition is well entrenched in gas production and is moving downstream into transportation markets. The provision of natural gas is now separated from the sale of pipeline transportation services, and local distribution services are being increasingly unbundled from the gas commodity sale. This paper measures and argues the productivity growth and change before and after the deregulation in the natural gas distribution industry at an industry level in the US using total factor productivity (TFP) and translog cost function methods. From the results, it is concluded the TFP in industry level has no significant growth rate before and after deregulation.
In analyses of spatial interaction data, geographical distances had been used as proxy for costs between origins and destinations. However, it has been pointed out that these data are influenced by invisible geographical and historical factors between two areas as well as simple geographical distances, and there has been a growing literature, which point out the importance and necessity of research on this spatial structure. In this research, the “Odds Ratio Decomposition Method II” developed by Higuchi is applied to the Japanese inter-prefectural telephone traffics data, and they are decomposed to push and pull factors and spatial structure. Characteristics and determinants of push and pull factors are thus successfully examined by panel analysis without effects of spatial structure.
Nozaki and Higano (1998) brought out that multi-objective optimization model is effective for the control of development and natural environmental conservation accompanied by the Ogasawara airport construction project. We use many assumptions for natural environment in our model, but we believe that the result of multi-objective optimization model is reliable. Because we calculated a few cases that differ in value of land use and living conditions of animal, but each result correspond well. I, however, have to recognize that the calculation in relation to natural environment was ideally. I try to improve the calculation of extinction risk in our model. I fix on subspecies of Japanese wood pigeon (Columba janthina niters) as the object. This bird is endemic species in Ogasawra islands and is classified into endangered species. The predetermined areas of alternatives of Ogasawara airport construction project contain their habitat. The calculation of extinction risk has newly absorbed features of metapopulation.
The Household saving in China underwent dramatic changes over the Past two decades. There have been some pervious studies about the savings behavior of urban household in China. But neither of them is enough to answer the question of what the true saving rate of urban household is all about. To examine saving behavior in china, it is essential to separate the rural and urban sectors because, as it will be seen below, different institutions and motives apply in each case. The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical study on urban household saving behavior in China. We focus on the Chinese social security system, which may have lowered saving rate by adopting non-monetary income. Our findings support the conjecture that regime shifts do play an important role in influencing Chinese urban household savings behavior.