This paper reports the results on estimation of housing demand for ownership households and tenants in Tokyo using household level data for 1993. The paper estimates a two step model. In the first step a hedonic price function is estimated which is used to construct price index for Tokyo. In the second step, a simultaneous model of tenure choice and housing demand is estimated. The results indicate that the demand for rental housing is inelastic with respect to permanent income and price at 0.26 and -0.33. The demand for owner houses are also inelastic with income as well as prices at 0.37 and -0.37. However, income elasticity is higher for owner houses than it is for rental houses. Other variables that are important in determining housing demand are household size and household type variables.
The quality of water in Tokyo Bay has been deteriorating since the early times. National government and local government have implemented many policies for the improvement of the water quality. But the water quality of the environmental standard point in Tokyo Bay has not improved sufficiently. We have to make an effort for the improvement of water quality. At present, there is no policy to ensure the practical use of the budget of prefecture or city integratedly for the improvement of the water quality. The pollution discharged from Edogawa River and Arakawa River catchment area (Edogawa River, Nakagawa River, Arakawa River and Shingashigawa River catchment area) constitute a little more than half of the pollution discharged from Tokyo Bay catchment area. If we can improve the pollution discharged effectively from these areas, the water quality in Tokyo Bay will improve considerably. And among these catchment area, Saitama Prefecture is a upper and Tokyo metropolitan is considerably down. If we can improve the water quality not only Tokyo Bay but also the rivers more than the present policies, the residents of these catchment area can agree to ensure to the practical use of the budget of the prefecture or city for the other prefecture or cities. The eutrophication in Tokyo Bay is due to pollution (nitrogen, phosphorus and COD) discharged from socio-economic activities and land use of the catchment area. But our purpose is to reduce pollution without deteriorating remarkably the socioeconomic activity level and proper land use in this area. In this study, we formulate a model which describes socio-economic activities, land use and the load of pollution (nitrogen, phosphorus and COD) and suggest effective policies in order to reduce pollution. We simulate the model which can promote a sustainable development of Tokyo Bay catchment area from the year 1997 to 2004.
Generally, it is not socially efficient for the provision of local public goods in a system of competing regional jurisdictions, because local public goods have spillover effect. However, the provision of local public goods which involves the free mobile individuals is Pareto optimal. Though only maximizing the utility of their own residents, regional governments perfectly internalize the externalities associated with their provision of public goods by taking the free mobile individuals into consideration. The implication is that there is no role for a national authority in either providing interregional transfers or correcting for decentralized provision of public goods. These analysis are characterized by Nash equilibrium. This paper examines the provision of local public goods which are characterized by Stackelberg equilibrium-one local government is Stackelberg leader, the other is Stackelberg follower. The result of this analysis is that Stackelberg equilibrium is not always Pareto optimal and there is a possibility of the free rider problem. This means achieving a Pareto optimal will require intervention by a national authority.
Transport investments result in expansion of interregional trade, acceleration of economic activities and people benefit from that. But as the transport system becomes developed and diversified, it brings about traffic pollution (e. g., noise and exhaust gas from cars) and the environment deteriorates by the constructions of transport infrastructures. Now, similar to the industrialized countries, the necessity of “the harmony of development and environmental protection” is being recognized in the developing countries. With the development of economy, people in Asian countries are also becoming aware of the problems quickly. However, the consciousness is not necessarily reflected in the policies. The situation is the same in China. In order to solve the serious transport problems in the western region of China, “National Tenth Five-year Construction Plan” has been presented. According to this plan, transportation investment is a key policy variable. As the transport system plays an important role in the production process, the plan will have immense impact on the regional structure of China. The economy of China will develop by the plan but it is also predicted that it will bring about industrial and city pollutions. Finding out the way to harmonize optimally, both the economic effect and environmental influence of the plan by implementing environmental policies is the objective of this research. In this paper, the whole area of China is divided into seven zones and a China type multi-regional multi-sectional social economic model is built. In the present social environment and economy of China, the changes in economic growth up to the 21st century under harsher measures for the amount of discharge of contaminants of CO, SOx and NOx are analyzed, and the pattern by which traffic industry develops is predicted. Also, an optimum solution which leads to efficient regional development is calculated by considering both comprehensive environmental evaluation and economical development. Specially, the change in the regional economy of western part of China, which has become a topic now, due to the expansion of the transportation system by infrastructure investment is analyzed. The effect on economy in each area due to the improvement of the comprehensive transportation network, and the nature of influence on the environment are considered. Moreover, the influence on economic growth under the environmental regulation is analyzed.
We present a dynamic input-output model, which determines the optimal level of economic activities and their optimal emission of air pollutants so as to maximize the welfare function being subject to the emission standards of the air pollutants with respect to the emission taxes. By making the emission standards strict step by step, we analyze the feasibility and implementability of the reduction scenario in the Kyoto Protocol by the numerical simulations. In this paper, it is argued that the cost of reduction in the emission of air pollutants in terms of GNP is large and the welfare rapidly decreases less than generally tolerable level as the reduction rate increases. We formulate a model of the total environmental economic system, which controls the air pollutants emitted by not only industries but also households. The fundamental of the model is the non-linear dual system of the input-output analysis. The taxes are levied on the emission of air pollutants by both production and consumption activities based on the producers pay principle. The prices change so as to reflect social costs of the air pollutants through the optimal emission taxes. For a while, we consider that these optimized emission taxes are collected by the government, and subsidized back for activities which abate air pollutants in the model. The model is applied to the Japanese economy in 1994-2002. Thirty-two industries are distinguished, and three types of pollutants, CO2, SOx and NOx are analyzed. We had obtained that to achieve a vast reduction in the emission such as made in the Kyoto Protocol, the technological progress in the abatement industries should be an important key factor. A fairly large amount of R & D investment into the abatement technology and related sciences will more pay than ever thought generally. And, it could be considered that even the reduction rate of 15% less than Basic Case (estimation case without any environmental policy) would be too large to be accepted generally and maximum tolerable reduction level could be 10% or so as for estimated Japanese economy of third period (1999-2002).
The aim of this paper is to make a quantitative analysis of the economic difference among cities within the Yangtze River Delta and its causes behind it. It shows that in the 90's the overall status of the Yangtze River Delta heightened as against the other areas of China, while its regional difference diminished. Moreover, the layer structure of the Yangtze River Delta economic sphere in the 90's is becoming clear. For the clarification of the future development scheme of the Yangtze River Delta, this paper analyzed the economic development in Japan after the war as a frame of reference. Through this comparative analysis between the Yangtze River Delta urban areas and the 47 prefectures of Japan, their similarities and differences are clarified and some suggestions are made for the policies.
In so far, interesting issues concerning the growth differential at the regional level can be divided into two problems. First, what factors have caused the growth differential? Second, is the regional differential in convergence or divergence with the economic rules of growth differential? The purpose of this study is to examine convergence of growth differential considering the differing growth patterns of metropolitan areas and local areas in Japan's regional economies. Furthermore, the analysis model used in this paper can investigate the effectiveness of factors causing growth differential and the speed of convergence in growth differential. This study leads to two notable conclusions. First, I find that the results of testing in the OLS model are not suitable for metropolitan areas. However, this model appeared suitable for local areas. This can be attributed to differing patterns between metropolitan and local areas in regards to regional differentials (β convergence) in income per capita of the employed. Second, it appears that in local areas having correlatively significant results, the variable of the human capital play a positive role in the growth convergence whereas the variable of the public capital does not. However, when considering effect other than those for product activity, I guess that the role of public capital in the growth would imply higher relative returns than the result suggested in the statistics.
This paper explores the long-run economic growth and labor migration in the process of economic development. We adopt the dual economy model in which there exist two production parts; manufacturing and agriculture. In the case of closed economy, two production parts remain and the labor allocation is constant along the equilibrium path. If the economy participates in the international commodity market, the equilibrium path leads it to complete specialization. Rural (agricultural) to urban (manufacturing) migration continues until the stock of capital reaches a certain level. After the agricultural sector vanishes, the GDP grows at a constant rate that is higher than that in the closed economy.
Recently, the purpose of waste management system has been expanded on the key word “recycling”. Worldwide researches and activities to the resources preservation, such as a global environment, is activated all the more. The waste management problem that is the big factor of those problems is coming to be taken greatly. Moreover, in Japan there is a problem of the securing difficulty of the final disposal place. The waste management system is coming into the time of the reform in our country. In this paper we developed the planning model of the waste management system as a tool of creating the information for support a desirable planning of waste management system including recycling, and analyzed on the actual level by this model to plan a waste management system effectively and rationally. This model includes a model of discharge quantity prediction, a model of waste collection system and a model of planning of waste management facilities. Final output of this model are the construction schedule of the management facilities, the amount of waste to landfill, construction cost of management facilities, running cost of facilities, cost of waste collection and details of repayment. And model analysis on actual level was examined through a case study at Kusatsu-City, Moriyama-City, Ritto-Cho, Yasu-Cho and Chuzu-Cho.
Generally, it is a difficult problem to adjust different claims of different interested parties in the process of large-scale and long-term infrastructure development project. Various parties are often in a social conflict with each other concerning their gain and loss that are brought about by the project. Such a social conflict is sometimes observed in a water resource development project that aims at construction of a dam, a river mouth weir, a reservoir, an irrigation canal and so on. Game theory is instrumental to analyze a social conflict to predict possible consequences and furthermore to suggest rational solutions for each interested party that is referred to as a player in the theory. It is assumed in the game theory that each player has one or more options to be taken and each possible consequence is a unique combination of options each player has taken. Among possible consequences, special attention should be paid to equilibrium solutions, that is, a consequence in which each player could only expect decrease of gain even by altering its own option alone unless other players would change their options. The present study depends on a game-theoretical method called conflict analysis that will be introduced in details later. At the same time, the study focuses on a dynamical aspect, that is, longitudinal change of psychological attitude each player has toward the project. The aspect has not been successfully taken into consideration in the game-theoretical perspective so far. Actually, it is often that each player changes its attitude during the long-term project. For example, an initial plan of a project that was once assumed rational for each player and thus also rational for a group of residents living near the project site and participating in the conflict as a player sometimes becomes irrational for the residents because of their change of attitude that has been caused by the passage of time, social influence of other players, environmental changes in the site and so on. The present study develops a behavioral decision model to formulate the change of attitude of each player by a set of differential equations. In the model, two important assumptions are set. First assumption is that a player goes back and forth between two states with some probability. In one of states, a player remembers an event that triggered the project, a natural disaster in many cases, and in another, a player forgets the event. Second assumption is that each player's attitude tends to be affected by the options that were taken by the other players.
We have conducted series of surveys on consumer's shop-around behavior at city center retail environment (CCRE) of Fukuoka City for the purpose to create the more attractive CCRE from the viewpoint of consumer's behavior. The survey on consumer's shop-around behavior at CCRE is conducted as follows. At several sampling points (shops) chosen, samples are randomly selected from visitors at these sampling points to record their shop-around history, the sequence of shops visited, purposes done and expenditure spent there in the order of their occurrence. This is just to collect the shopping trip chain data by on-site sampling. In other words, it is simply the on-site person trip survey, which is a striking contrast to the traditional person trip survey by home-based sampling. However, as Saito, Kakoi, and Nakashima (2000) first indicated, there occurs the choice-based bias if on-site trip chain data from different sampling points are pooled to be used to estimate OD pattern. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem to formulate a new theoretical method for consistent estimation of OD pattern based on on-site trip chain data and to establish a theoretical foundation for on-site person trip survey.
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of a foreign output on the optimal tariff when the domestic government and firm have asymmetric information about the foreign firm's cost. We assume that the foreign firm exports the domestic market over two periods. In the first period, the firm exports as a monopolist under a constant tariff. In the second period, the domestic firm enters its market. After observing the level of imports, the domestic government forms beliefs about the type of firm exporting its market and selects a per unit tariff. Given the chosen tariff, the foreign firm competes the domestic firm a la Cournot. Since the domestic firm does not know the true cost of the foreign firm, it maximizes its expected profit. At the pooling equilibrium, the low-cost foreign firm constraints its first period output. At the separating equilibrium, it expands its first period output. The low-cost foreign firm constraints its first period output if it regards its second period profit as important.
We examined the explanatory power of income differentials model which explains internal migration in post-war Japan. Using prefectural data for 1955-95, we performed lots of cross-sectional regression analysis every year based on (1) two types of regional division (10 regions and 36 regions), (2) three kinds of dependent variables (net migration rates, in-migration rates and out-migration rates) and (3) four kinds of dependent variables (differentials of per capita distributed income, per capita personal income, per capita non-personal income, and per capita employer's income). The results of our analysis are summarized as follows. First, regional division affects the results of internal migration in postwar Japan to some extent. It affects little when net migration rates are explained, but especially in the regression analysis of in-migration rates of 36 regions the values of Β estimate show negative sign instead of positive sign of 10 regions during two equilibrating periods of internal migration. Second, differentials of per capita distributed income explain the net migration rates greatly, but those explain the in-migration rates and out-migration rates of 10 regions weakly, and in-migration rates of 36 regions shows negative sign during two equilibrating periods of internal migration. Third, we can use differentials of per capita distributed income as the proxy variables of per capita personal income, because differentials of per capita distributed income have the same explanatory power as differentials of per capita personal income. Fourth, income differentials model has the most explanatory power in the case of (1) long distance migration in which people move out of their local labor markets completely and (2) net migration in which out-migration offsets in-migration.
A huge area of Japan (800 ha, or half the area of Hokkaido) is covered by artificial forests which are either private or local government property. Almost all of these forests were created within the period of rapid growth of economy in response to the increase in demand for woods. However, half of the forests are being ruined without maintenance, because the increase in import of woods makes national forestry weak. Forest researchers have ascertained that artificial forests, which are different from natural forests, lose economic value and public interest if people neglect the maintenance of a forest. However, the loss of the public interest is not apparent in terms of amount. This is the reason the measures to keep public interest in artificial forests is not being emphasized. In the beginning of this research, we estimated the social benefit derived from the maintenance of artificial forests. From this estimation, it is revealed that the positive maintenance of artificial forest is effective. Next, we analyzed current policy on artificial forests from economic viewpoints. From this analysis, it was revealed that current policy by subsidy for national forestry is not enough to recover public interest. Then, we proposed a new policy, which regards the maintenance of artificial forests as one of the substitute policies for public construction like flood control or irrigation, and took its advantages and hurdles into consideration.
We have had many factories and works of medium and small enterprises in the inner area of metropolises in Japan. It is general that they have mingled with houses, shops and so on in the inner area. They had caused so heavy environmental pollution from the beginning of 1960s. So, it had expected to separate the location of factories and works in the inner area, from houses. The Systems for collective establishment that have been enable factories and works of medium and enterprises to assemble into an industrial park or into a high rise building, was enforced in the middle 1960s. The systems have covered the roles to separate the location of factories and works from houses, to promote rationalization of management and administration of medium and small enterprises and so on. Almost 40 years have passed since the systems for collective establishment of factories and works was enforced. And it is well known that we have experienced remarkable change in the structure of industrial economics in Japan for 40 years. In this paper existing conditions of the projects by the systems for collective establishment has shown. Then, the role of the systems to improve the environmental pollution caused by factories and works, to reduce mingled location of factories, works and houses in the inner area and to promote rationalization of management and administration of medium and small enterprises have been analyzed. In this paper Tokyo Metropolitan City has mainly been analyzed as a case. It is clarified that the systems for collective establishment of factories and works have played usefully its rolls. And it is clarified that the systems should carry on, nevertheless it has points to amend in the systems.
During the last two decades, the people of Bangladesh have been habituated to drink water from tube wells to avoid water borne diseases. However, recently, it has been found that half of the tube wells of 61 out of 64 districts of the country are affected by arsenic contamination. The permissible limit of arsenic declared by the Bangladesh authorities is .05mg/liter. According to latest statistics, 85 million people are at risk of being poisoned with arsenic, one tenth of whom are likely to have cancer. If one continues to drink arsenic contaminated water or food for ten years or more, he or she is likely to be attacked by melanosis, leuco-melanosis, keratosis, ulcer, gangrene, cancer of the skin, lung, liver, kidney and bladder. So far, 100 people are known to have died of arsenicosis. At present, there are about 10, 000 diagnosed as arsenicosis patients. The source of arsenic contamination in Bangladesh is widely thought to be natural and geological in nature. However, there is controversy among scholars regarding the processes through which the contamination occurs. Controversies in theories must be resolved in order to take appropriate measures to save the affected people. Measures based on wrong theories are likely to make the bad situation even worse. In the present paper, we reflect on the different explanations given by theorists and interview experts (by e-mail) regarding their opinions on this problem in order to clarify the issues related to the source of the arsenic contamination. By doing so, we try to find out appropriate measures to be undertaken.
The grassland animal system in Inner Mongolia and other pastoral areas of China, which was transformed over the 4 decades following liberation in 1949 from a nomadic system to a semi-nomadic one, is currently partially sedentary and partially semi-nomadic. An explanation of the transformation process is provided along with the historical cultural setting. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), the same methodology used in an evaluation of the transformation during the early 1990s in the case study site in northeastern Inner Mongolia, is presented in this article. An economic and technical analysis is also reported on about options for structural change in the grasslands over the next quarter century. The analysis involves a shift from an integrated cow/calf and growing-fattening system on the grasslands, to shipping calves from the grasslands to the cropping areas of north central China for growing and fattening. It is concluded that grazing land producers would obtain more net income from selling weaned calves rather than fattened animals. Furthermore, nationally, the country would benefit considerably through reduced use of feedstuffs..