Water is indispensable to organisms and the management of water is an important administrative issue for the governments. Under the current circumstances of water resources in Japan, it is necessary to maintain circulation of water in terms of quantity and quality. Accordingly, the importance of management of water within a watershed is pointed out. In this study, we examine the possibility of application of a tradable permit system to water quality management in a watershed in Japan. The governments in Japan adopt command-and-control measures in most cases of water quality management, and they rarely apply economic instruments. A tradable permit system is one of the economic instruments, and it is an effective measure to reduce the amount of pollutant discharged with a minimum total cost of abatement. In this study, regarding closed-type water systems, we consider a water-quality management system operated by a watershed manager, who introduces a tradable permit system in the watershed, issues permits and facilitates permit trading. Using a case of Tokyo bay where a total amount of COD discharged into the bay has been regulated as an example, we produce a simple simulation model of the operation of a tradable permit system and analyze reductions in the abatement cost based on actual data regarding water qualities (before and after treatments) and abatement costs required. The simulation results demonstrated that the cost savings of approximately 25% was achieved by the introduction of the tradable permit system. It is also shown that the system is effective to reduce the costs of nonpoint-source measures. Thus, tradable permit systems can be an alternative policy for water quality management. We also propose a model to show an index to upstream-downstream problems in terms of the allocation of water-treatment costs, with the assumption of a watershed manager and using the theory of a tradable permit system.
Sharing of transboundary freshwater among riparian states has existed as a problem since ancient times. In Bangladesh, there are more than 200 rivers, which have their origin in other countries, e. g., India, Nepal and China and almost all the rivers flow through India before entering into Bangladesh. Among these rivers, the Teesta is an important one- the issue of sharing of the water of which has not yet been solved. The Bangladesh authorities constructed a barrage at Dalia (located at the downstream) to use Teesta water for irrigation purposes. Only two years after the commencement of the operation of the Dalia barrage, the Indian authorities started operating the Gazoldoba barrage at the upstream. This resulted in the Dalia barrage's becoming practically useless. Moreover, at the freewill of the Gazoldoba authorities, the people of the downstream (Bangladesh) experience flash floods. The authorities of both the countries met many times and signed treaties to resolve the problem, but have failed to reach an effective solution. We believe that treaties that are only politically induced and do not include provisions for economic benefits on part of the riparian states are not likely to sustain for long. In this paper, we try to develop a simple theoretical model for bilateral sharing of international river water, which would be able to provide equitable and highest possible benefit for the residents of the river basin area as a whole. Moreover, we propose an optimal solution to the water-sharing problem of the Teesta River.
This paper develops a two-country, two-sector model of international trade in which the stock of environmental capital accumulates over time. It shows how the pattern of production and the welfare level of each country change by opening trade when there is production externalities in the form of worldwide-scale pollution. There have appeared many theoretical studies on the interaction between trade and the environment. Among them, we focus on the model of Copeland and Taylor  (1999) which analyzes the pattern of production and the welfare level of each country in the Ricardian type of trade model with local environmental pollution. In this paper we re-examined their analysis under the supposition that pollution generated in one country possibly influences the economic activities of other countries. Then we show essentially the same results as those in Copeland and Taylor's analysis. But we deepen their analysis and obtain an implication that the relationship between the relative demand of manufacturing goods to the agricultural ones and the relative level of foreign environmental capital to the home one plays the significant role in determining the pattern of production. In addition, we make clear the relationship between the pattern of production and the transboundary degree of pollution.
This paper purports to derive the energy requirement for the China's long-term economic development during the period of 1999 to 2030 derived from a projection with our updated PERT-Econometric model. Several major issues of the economic development of China will be discussed in addition to the energy demand and supply balance along her development path. In the past more than 20 years since the end of 70's China achieved a very fast economic growth under the ‘Reform and Open’ regime. Although China is expected to maintain high economic growth for a considerable period to come, some serious issues, such as unemployment and disparity in income distribution, need thorough investigation to assess the attainability of the intended development. The discrepancy between the growing demand for and declining production of energy, for instance, has already become serious enough to affect not only her energy policy but also her foreign policy. The model projection shows that the required energy consumption will increase from 1.4 in 1999 to 5.3 billion SCE (standard coal equivalent) tons in 2030 under the presumed condition, which implies that the energy import will grow to 2.1 billion tons. Our study is based on the PERT-econometric model that was specifically designed for development planning to focus on typical Asiatic not-too-small economies, and revised and updated for this study. An application of the model to China's economy will reveal the changes in the composition of the industrial sectors, which will accordingly affect the demand for energy. Subjected to several judgmental indicators, the outcome of several projections indicates the overall level of energy efficiency to be achieved for the targeted per capita $3, 500 to be attained.
This paper analyses the intra-industry trade and intra-industry division of labour in Swedish machinery industry trade with 25 countries. Intra-industry division of labour arises from trade of intermediate goods. We measure the degree of intra-industry division, and the ratio of intra-industry division to intra-industry trade. Using these indices, we analyse regional and sectoral pattern of intra-industry trade and division. Grubel-Lloyd index shows that intra-industry division of labour is an important factor of intra-industry trade. The analysis within the framework of the gravity model of trade shows that intra-industry trade and division of labour is positively related to the size of country, negatively related to the distance between two country and dissimilarity of income. In Swedish case, GL index of intra-industry division is higher with the European countries than with the non-European countries, and higher with developed countries than with developing countries. In addition, the results of GL index and regression reveal the difference in industrial sectors. The intra-industry trade and division of metal working machinery sector, which tends to regionally concentrate, is higher with countries in the same region than other industrial sectors.
Recently, the development of the model that express real traffic flow from hour to hour accurately is required. So, this study analyzes the traffic prediction of Nagoya City in the morning peak hours by using the road network including expressway in Nagoya City and suburb of it. Expressway in the network have many features unlike ordinary road, therefore it needs some countermeasures. In this study toll is converted by value of time as the way of dealing with it in the time. In addition, conversion rate of expressway uses as a method. The purpose of study is to examine about the present state reapperance of the model.
We have developed a land-use/transport interaction model considering the environment based on urban economic theory and have implemented it to analyze the changes in accessibility resulting from road improvement. We have also analyzed whether such changes lead to a concentration or dispersion of population and industrial activities in a location. Our results also suggest that the interaction between transportation and landuse must be considered in the planning process, both corroboratively and theoretically. In particular, the results of the simulation showed that road improvements may increase the cost of travel because of the interaction between transportation and land-use, that is, induced traffic. Also, the results suggested that the non-interaction not to consider the interaction between transportation and land-use could cause us to overestimate benefits. In addition, we compared the effects of TDM with those by road building, carrying out a comparative analysis of the measured effects. The result of the comparative analysis demonstrated that TDM should be taken into account, as there is a considerable reduction effect with regard to the travel costs, the reduction effect for CO2 and NOX emission amounts is higher than it by road-building.
Water is cycled in urban area. The hierarchical model of water circulation system is described as this flow with four layers (River layer, Water supply layer, Urban active layer, and Sewerage layer) A manager of rivers, water services and sewers does not recognize this water cycle. They are likely to improve their facilities individually. Therefore shortage of water and fall of amenity occur in time of an earthquake disaster occurred. The water circulation system is evaluated by stability. Stability is quantity of water supply for a standard value. Recently waterfront in urban area decreases widely compared to 1950's. Because river basins smaller than 200 hectares have been managed as a sewer after 1973 in order to prevent inundation and hygiene problem in a city. Therefore many waterways and streams were buried or turned into culverts. Furthermore, even if a river basin is larger than 200 hectares, the unnecessary river basin for urban development were buried or turned into culverts. The waterfront where many people gather are the place for contact, rest and ease for citizen. Waterfront are amenity space in normal and becomes important place to get hydrant water and toilet water in time of an earthquake disaster occurred. Waterfront recreation model considering advancement of amenity in normal and reduction of damage in time of an earthquake disaster occurred is proposed. A return period of an earthquake is once in several hundred. Equipment investment for merely prevention from an earthquake is difficult. So this model concerning both aspects (normal and time of earthquake occurred) is effective for prevention of an earthquake. In this paper, this model is applied to Yodo River basin as a case study. Firstly Evaluation indexes of stability are made of connections of vertexes and edges, the course of edge, the volume of a pipe. Secondly Waterfront recreation model is formulated. Finally a formulation of this model is applied, and the results are analyzed by evaluation indexes of stability.
Quantitative economic valuation has already been implemented for agriculture and forest by applying the substitution method. The external economic impact of agriculture and forest has been grasped by summing up each impact in previous literature. In some foreign countries including EU where dry field farming is centralized in agriculture, however, significance of environmental impact of agriculture and forest has widely been recognized. Thus this article attempts to present a new economic valuation method for the functions of agriculture and forest including their effects on the environment. The concept of System for Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) is employed to indicate the value of agriculture and forest in the framework of national economy. Mäler's approach is applied to theoretically derive a SEEA with agriculture and forest, and then those in Japan are valuated in a SEEA context by referring to research materials of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries of Japan.
First this paper indicates the fault common to the analysis given by three professors as to the Deposit-Refund System, and then provides a (much better?) alternative model for Deposit-Refund Theory. In their papers, all three professors have adopted two-stage construction. In the first stage the economic subject demands soft-drink cans following the utility-maximizing rule qua consumer (Jekyll), and then, in the second stage, he suddenly turns into entrepreneur (Hyde) and pursues his profit following the marginal cost-price rule, completely independent of the former behavior. (In Prof. Fujioka's paper, he firstt appears as Hyde. Then transformation into Jekyll!) Their analyses only place a utility-maximizing behavior and a profit-maximizing behavior in juxtaposition completely independent of each other. Such dissociation should not be overlooked. Alternatively a simple (and much better?) model of a unified Deposit-Refund Theory is proposed, which incorporates toil and trouble attendant on refunding into utility function as disutility, together with including the refunded money into the budget equation.
Recently the competition among retail activities has become severer in Japanese local regions. It is mainly due to the deregulation for large store locations and the changes in shopping behaviors of consumers. The decrease in small stores and the decline of shopping centers in the local cities have brought about the deterioration of living standard and the loss of economic vitality in surrounding areas. The rehabilitation of retail activities is now a key issue in Japanese city and regional planning. This paper aims to propose two analytical methods to examine the relationship between the accumulation of retail activities and the shopping behaviors in local municipalities. The first method decomposes the vitality of retail activities into four factors: the density of stores; the average size of stores; the average service ratio by the employee; and the labor productivity. The second method estimates the attractiveness of municipality as a shopping place by applying a linear regression model based on the Huff model. The methods have been applied to identify the trends in retail activities and shopping behaviors in 78 municipalities of Okayama prefecture. The study employs data from the Census of Commerce by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the survey of shopping behavior of residents by the Okayama Economic Research Institute for the years 1991, 1994 and 1997. The main findings of the study have revealed that the vitality of retail activity had a close relationship with the average store size and the labor productivity. The result coincides with the rapid growth of large-scale shopping centers in local regions. The small stores and the conventional shopping centers in city centers have been reduced under the severe competition with large stores. The shopping behavior of local residents has been greatly influenced by the scale of retail activities in municipalities. The decline of retail activities in local regions might lead to the loss of shopping opportunities and the further depopulation through the deterioration of living standard.
In today, traffic means diversifies, people is expecting more comfortable transfer. However, walking also accompanies any traffic means. In other words, walking is the basis of them and occupies most of urban traffic. And recently, Sapporo in Hokkaido, it is planning the city that considered environment and pedestrian. Therefore, It is necessary that comfortable transfer would be possible in walking space, as the walking becomes more important. Then, this study noticed that the possibility reducing the sensation of distance: “consciousness distance”. In the place, distance perception of human in transfer is very unclear, and the main factors influencing that are considered mental state of human, weather condition, surroundings of transfer, etc. Then, this study noticed surroundings of transfer that can consider in urban and regional planning, the relationship between consciousness distance and the surroundings of walking in walking transfer clarified. To begin with, we set six sidewalks as objects of the research, and carried out walking experiment. As the result, it was proven that the consciousness distance was greatly influenced by surroundings of walking. Next, we set some underground passages as objects of the research for purpose of clarifying factors influencing consciousness distance. Then, as a result of analysis of factors influencing by Semantic Differential method and Analytic Hierarchy Process in addition to the walking experiment, it was proven that four factors: busyness, richness of visual environment, brightness, diversity of visual environment are greatly influencing consciousness distance. In addition, it was proven the relation that high total weight in AHP evaluation of underground passage coincided with short consciousness distance.
In Thailand, most migrant labor from rural districts to Bangkok Metropolis are young workers in their late teens and twenties. Nevertheless, expected urban wages for young migrants are lower than elder ones and uncertainty of wage, in turn, is greater as the migrants become younger. This paper explains the migration behavior that is particularly intensive among youth with regard to workers' motive for learning about their own ability or suitability to different jobs. Uncertainty of urban wages reflects innate ability that is unobservable to workers themselves, hence indicating that wages are better signals of such heterogeneity for younger migrants. This implies young workers' migration to Bangkok is motivated by learning about own ability/suitability. Empirical findings using labor survey data from Thailand show that; (1) Bangkok wages for younger migrants are more diverse from being more dependent on unobserved attributes, and (2) the wage diversity due to its dependence on ability motivates young workers' migration to Bangkok
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate how dynamic R & D and R & D policy affect an international oligopolistic competition. Suppose that there is an international rivalry between two firms (i.e., home and foreign firms), both of which export their homogeneous outputs to the third country. Suppose also that initially two firms have equal technology. In order to maximize the discounted sum of profits, two firms should decide how much to invest in R & D and how much to produce outputs. We start from a simple export rivalry model and make it a dynamic model by introducing cost-reducing R & D made by two firms. Moreover, we allow for the possibility of R & D spillovers between two firms. In the first part of this paper we formulate the differential games to be solved by two firms, derive and characterize the unique open-loop Nash equilibrium. In the second part of this paper we examine the open-loop Nash equilibrium R & D policies of the two governments. The following results were obtained: (1) The stationary state marginal cost of two firms depends on the parameters, that is, demand, spillover, discount rate and R & D cost parameter. (2) The speed of convergence for the stationary state marginal cost of two firms depends on the parameters, that is, demand, spillover, discount rate and R & D cost parameter. (3) The optimal trajectories of R & D capitals and investment strategies of two firms depend on the parameters, that is, spillover, discount rate and R & D cost parameter. (4) The open-loop Nash equilibrium R & D subsidies of the two governments depend on the parameters, that is, spillover, discount rate and R & D cost parameter. These results lead to the conclusion that the stationary state level of marginal cost depend on the degree of spillover and the optimal R & D subsidies depend on the discount rate and the R & D cost.
It is a well-known fact that pollution in the lakes and marshes (e. g. Lake Kasumigaura etc.) and their catchment areas has increased since the 1960's. It has been caused by the increase in socio-economic activities, such as advancement of industry and consumption increase in household economy. To solve such a problem, many studies in various fields (e. g. chemistry, bionomics, ecology etc.) are being carried out for investigating the process of deterioration of the water quality and improvement of technologies. From the viewpoint of social science, we also have numerous studies, analyzing political aspects of the environmental problems and socio-economic activities. However, it is necessary to take into account the views and opinions of the residents living around the lake on the issue of deteriorating the water quality and ways of improving the water quality. In this study, we try to estimate the residents' evaluation of the water quality of Lake Kasumigaura and relate their experience based opinions to the pollutants represented in the chemical symbols of elements to build a residents' model in order to analyze within the social environment model.
Investment in information technology (IT) is expected to enhance the productivity and/or profitability of the individual firm, and to deliver productivity-related benefits that flow through the firm, both at sectoral and macroeconomic levels. This flow-through-which we term the “micro-macro linkage”-depends on various factors, and if one (or more) should fail, IT investment may fail to yield tangible macroeconomic benefits. Such failure is widely thought to have occurred in the U. S. during the 1980s, creating the so-called “IT productivity paradox” referenced in Solow's well-known line, “You can see the Computer Age everywhere but in the productivity statistics.” In the years since, numerous economists have sought to identify possible causes for this productivity shortfall. For the U. S., the paradox seems happily to have disappeared during the early 1990s. In Japan, however, massive IT investment has yet to deliver macroeconomic growth, suggesting that the productivity paradox remains at work. In this article, the authors draw on the U. S. experience to identify several key factors that may affect the micro-macro linkage, then examine whether these factors may be applicable to Japan today. Our key findings, as derived from Japanese corporate data, are as follows: 1. IT investment contributes to firm productivity in Japan; 2. Certain forms of management initiative (e. g., creating “flatter” (or less hierarchical) organizations) have not delivered expected benefits in Japan; and 3. IT investment does not make any significant positive contribution to profitability in Japanese firms. The authors suggest that Japanese IT paradox may be at least partly attributable to failures in the management initiatives that typically accompany IT introduction.
When we study the determinants of migration, we have two methods; the first method is the multiple. regression analysis, and the second method is one to make use of the results of the surveys on the reasons of migration. The Tokyo Metropolitan Population Survey of Reasons for Migration was carried out in 1971, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996. All six surveys are sample surveys and effective samples were about 30, 000 in 1996 for example. The main results of our analysis are summarized as follows. (1) Have the reasons of migration in Tokyo Metropolitan Prefecture changed from economic reasons to non-economic reasons? This phenomenon has been verified only about intra-metropolitan movement form 1971 to 1976, and has not been verified about long distance migration at all. (2) ‘Job reasons’ have been the main reasons of long distance migration and influenced by the regional economic differentials such as per capita income differentials or active opening ratio differentials. (3) ‘Transfer reasons’ has increased the importance within the migration reasons. It has the characteristic that the numbers of in-migration and out-migration are nearly same. Tokyo metropolitan prefecture, however, has attracted more employees from the other regions. (4) ‘Housing reasons’ have predominated in the case of in- and out-migration between Tokyo and Minami Kanto Region (Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba). In this case, the sharp rise of land prices at Tokyo during the bubble period promoted out-migration to Minami Kanto. The fall after the collapse of bubble economy promoted in-migration from Minami Kanto. (5) The numbers of migration on ‘Environments around houses’ such as park, pollution or disaster have been very few and declined. The ratio of migration based on ‘convenience of commuting’ has increased in the case of intra-metropolitan prefecture and in-migration from Minami Kanto.
The decline in local governmental tax revenues caused by the collapse of Japan's bubble economy and other factors has had a significant impact on the activities of local governments. This is particularly true of subsidies for cultural activities and outlays for cultural facility construction. These expenditures were a result of the growth in tax revenues and the wishes of local residents. There have been significant changes in appropriations for cultural affairs, however, due to the need to balance citizens'daily circumstances with economic conditions. This is reflected in the reduced outlays of local governments for cultural activities over the past five years, owing to the lack of political motivation and the nature of cultural affairs as nonessential administrative issues of secondary importance. This is a report on a follow-up survey of the culturally related budgetary expenditures by local governments in the 40 years since 1960, based on data obtained from questionnaires sent to local governments, and from the national government. Also included is an analysis of the changes resulting from balancing the desire for these expenditures with social conditions.
In the near future, we will accept the aging society and a decline in population, so it's necessary to survey a change in the population structure because the social system in Japan depends on age structure. And considering that local decentralization proceeds, we have to investigate not only population for Japan but also those for regions. In this paper, basing in Nagoya City that belongs to three major metropolitan areas (Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya major metropolitan areas) and is supposed to contribute to local activations, we analyze the inter-regional migration that is the most important factor especially in changes of regional population. The construction of this paper is as the following. In section 2, we introduce actual migration data in Nagoya City and migration factors that Nagoya City Government Office presented. In section 3, we explain migration model called gravity model, and choose dependent variables in migration modeling. In this paper, we examine Nagoya City migration dividing in three areas, the surrounding area (means Aichi prefecture), metropolitan area except Aichi prefecture and non-metropolitan area except Aichi prefecture, and we use panel data for 1981-99. In section 4, we show the results of the regression analysis. Further, we divide the estimation period into three, before thebubble period (1981-86), on the bubble period (1987-91) and after the bubble period (1992-99), and we compare a coefficient of land price in each period that is supposed to be the most effective factor in Nagoya City migration. And we dictate future subjects in last section.
An agricultural land is the base of agribusiness, and it is expected to be the most effective function in agriculture production, moreover, to act even the role as precious complementary goods of city park in an urban area recently. This research purposes to measure the environmental preservation function of such productive green tract of land, or a city agricultural land, by the Contingent Valuation Method. Agricultural land regarded as the object of this research are four places of productive green tract land existing in a residential section inside the commuting area to Tokyo, that is, Hanamigawa-ku in the City of Chiba being one of typical densely populated districts. Because the productive green tract of land is the public property peculiar to the area surrounding it, the benefits from it are mainly brought about to the peripheral residents. Then, making the peripheral residents of each productive geen tract the beneficiaries, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the area within 100 meters from it. The questionnaire forms were delivered to each benefit family by hand and collected in 2 or 3 days after delivery. The check list format was adopted to the questionnaire. The mean WTP (Willingness To Pay) for maintaining and extending the productive green tract was estimated to be about ¥600_??_¥1, 200 per beneficiary, and the environmental benefits such as amenity benefit, a safety one for natural disasters and others brought by each productive green tract was done to be about ¥37, 000_??_¥102, 000. Also, it is confirmed the amount of environmental benefit given to the peripheral residents increases with progressing in the urbanization. The agricultural land designated to the productive green tract is receiving a profitable taxation policy, in other words, it means the grant of a subsidy from a public division, that is, it is nothing but the social cost for environmental safeguard. Then, the environmental benefit, or a kind of social welfare, is evaluated quantitatively in comparison with the reduction and exemption amount of fixed property tax and inheritance tax, or a kind of social expense. The results of it demonstrated the latter exceeded the former on every productive green tract.
The purpose of this study is to investigate an incentive for the merger of local municipalities (cities, town and village) in view of the intergovernmental subsidy policy. The central issue in our study is the relation between population and the per capita subsidy. The empirical results are, first, when a town and village merges, the subsidy in total decreases. Second, when a town and a village combine to form a city, the subsidy drastically decreases. Third, the estimated subsidy function decreases, as the population grows, and then gradually increases. Over 85% of the cities are positioned around the decreasing part of the graph.
Recently with progress of the motorization and change of the life style, new commerce forms such as convenience store are produced and the consumer is accepting it. In the meantime, the central urban district might not take the countermeasure that should respond to consumer needs. Therefore, it was not possible to deal with upgrading and diversification of the factor required in the central urban district of the consumer. As the result, the foot of the consumer would approach a large-scale retail store in the suburb, and it declined of the central commercial district. From such fact, the challenge of central urban district activation by citizen participation has been made in various regions. And, the viewpoint for the central urban district of people that lives there seems to be also different, if the region as an object is different. From this fact, it is not uniform nationally, and it seems to require central urban district activation measures considering the regional characteristic. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is noticed, as the technique in which to show consciousness and opinion of people in such case at the numerical value is possible. But there is a problem increase of evaluation burden of examinee when criteria and alternative are large, because this technique needs pair comparison. Then, authors propose “Relative Position Measurement Approach” as the technique which overcomes these problems. This technique does not need pair comparison. Then the evaluation criteria are carried out in “position” on the line. It is possible to reduce evaluation burden of examinee from this. However the reliability of Relative Position Measurement Approach has not been verified yet. This study carried out questionnaire of Relative Position Measurement Approach and Absolute Measurement Approach. Alternative was made to be commercial district in Hokkaido Otaru and Saitama Prefect. Iruma, and examinee made to be regional inhabitant. The reliability of Relative Position Measurement Approach was verified from result. In addition, the factor which people required in the commercial district became clear by comparison and analysis of the result. Then, central urban district activation measures were researched.
On Japanese inter-regional railway, there are several networks. Shinkansen and existing lines (AC/DC/no electrification) have no inter-operability. We can regard that inter-operability is very important factor to evaluate quality or redundancy of inter-regional railway network. In this study, I analyzed concerning historical process of inter-operability in Japanese inter-regional railway network, and some example of making inter-operability and link stop with no alternative routes. Through this analysis, I can define current problems of inter-regional railway network in Japan. On ordinary condition, it is possible to increase social benefit by making inter-operability between Shinkansen to existing line. Yamagata Shinkansen project and Akita Shinkansen project are successful example. On situation of link stop, there are some risks to increase social losses. If that link has no alternative route, all trains cannot be operated. Even if that link has some alternative routes, many trains cannot be operated too. Because there are a large number of trains, slot of alternative route is not enough. 81days stop of San-yo Shinkansen is typical example there is no alternative routes. Those benefits or losses can be evaluated by quantitative method. But index of making inter-operability is next challenging. I trust that this study can provide some valuable knowledge to discuss development policy of inter-regional railway network, especially concerning making inter-operability between Shinkansen to existing line.
The Black Sea has suffered from serious environmental problems during the last three decades due to increasing loads of different types of pollutants from domestic discharges, industrial activities, transportation, agriculture etc. Therefore, finding solutions to improve the environmental status of the Black Sea is one of the critical issues. Turkey is one of the Black Sea countries, releasing significant amounts of contaminants due to human activities. Reducing the pollution generated from this huge area will contribute to decrease total contamination in the Black Sea. In this paper, the Black Sea hydrological and geographical structure are summarized and available studies on region-wide scale are evaluated. Then an integrated approach for reducing water pollution in the Black Sea is outlined and adopted methodology is introduced based on clarifying the ecosystem structure and its interaction with socioeconomic activities in the Turkish Black Sea Basin
A social structure of Japan has shifted to industry society and postindustrial society from the pre industry society. And the urbanization advances. Therefore, the promotion lowers by smaller city except for central core city and fact of village in which it is increased. Therefore, reclamation of new industry promotion field that matches the social structure change is necessary in smaller cities, etc. in order to do that regional activation. Then, this study did Hokkaido with the effect with object area, and it noticed sightseeing field that was the industry that is included for postindustrial society as the new industry promotion field. Then, the concrete promotion object made “michinoeki” to be an object. Then, “michinoekis” ideal was studied. The research method analyzed needs according to the questionnaire for the user of “michinoeki” in Hokkaido. In addition, in linking with the geographich datum the investigation data hierarchical cluster analysis each “michinoeki” it was visualized, it was analyzed. As the result, “michinoekis” in Hokkaido was proven with that it had various sides. That is to say, “michinoekis” do be not uniformly caught as future ideal. It seems to be important to examine developments and layouts, etc. by the consideration of each feature sufficiently.