Questionnaires on streetscape-consciousness of the old (1930s) and the new (1980s) photos of four shopping streets were shown to university students, in Taiwan and Canada, in order to analyze differences in streetscape-consciousness between Taiwanese, East Asians and Canadians, Westerners. According to the results, despite the fact that they look at the same elements in the streetscape, we can argue that differences were found between Taiwanese and Canadian notions of “rustic” and “urban”.
We employed co-integration analysis to investigate the determinants of FDI inflows into Thailand for the period 1970 to 1996. Our findings show that the market size; the relative low labor cost; the degree of openness; the level of trade barriers; the user cost of capital differentials and the real exchange rate were the determinants of the aggregate FDI inflows. Regarding the components of FDI inflows, namely manufacturing and non-manufacturing FDI, our findings indicate that the manufacturing FDI was also responsive to factors related to the firm's capacity to export, including the relative labor cost, the degree of openness and the exchange rate. In contrast, the non-manufacturing FDI was mainly induced by the domestic demand and relative low labor cost of Thailand.
This paper estimates endogenous nodal attractions with exogenous nodal spatial interaction and impedance data with a specific unconstrained gravity model. An algebraic simplification method is developed to use minimum inter-nodal interaction data to derive satisfactory nodal attraction estimates. As applied to a 5x5 origin-destination case, the method can potentially be used for large-scale spatial interaction analyses in which obtaining a complete inter-nodal interaction matrix is impossible or a reduction of computation is necessary.
The study is about the determination of regional productivity in Finland. Regional labour productivity is related to industrial structure, demographic factors and the variables that capture the reorganization of labour markets. The data covers 85 regions from 1989 to 1997. The estimation results show that ICT manufacturing yields an increase in labour productivity, but the positive impact of ICT manufacturing is tightly limited to its direct contribution. In contrast to the U. S. and European stylized features, there is no empirical evidence for the view that when the density of economic activity increases, the labour productivity of the Finnish regions rises.