Under the growing awareness on the global environmental issues, the Japanese Government has been enacting various laws for energy saving and material recycling to promote the formation of environment-friendly society. The input-output analysis is a useful tool to examine the economic structural problems concerning the economic growth, the industrial structure and the environment. Several researches have been conducted to identify the efficiency of energy and resource consumption in Japanese industries and the environmental pollution using input-output analysis. The authors have examined the relationship between the industrial structure and the energy and resource consumption in Japanese regions by employing multiregional input-output tables. However, the former studies have faced the problem of double counting in estimating the energy and resources consumption due to the intermediate transactions among industries. This study aims to cope with the above problem by employing the carbon dioxide emission intensity by industry, which has been estimated by the National Institute for Environmental Studies in Japan. The paper examines the relationship between the economic growth and the carbon dioxide emission in Japanese regions by applying the multi-regional input-output models for 1975, 80, 85, 90 and 95. The study has revealed that Kanto region (including Tokyo metropolitan region) showed a marked growth in carbon dioxide emission with a rapid economic growth during 1980s. Most of the local regions showed low environmental emission as well as a decline in regional economy.
In this paper, a location choice model is developed to analyze the newly created Japanese-owned plants (FDI) in East Asia during the period 1986-1999. Using negative binomial model, we found the following results: in the location advantages, the market size, the wage rate, the industrial agglomeration, the export ratio, and the infrastructure are determinants of location choice for Japanese Electronics Industry in East Asia. Thus, it appears that the industry-level agglomeration plays an important role in location decisions.
It is believed that the global warming, which may cause abnormal weather patterns and global environmental disruption, has been affected by green house effect gas emission from human activities. The global warming has been studied in various fields of science. It has been carried out that the monitoring systems and the simulation models for climate change in natural science. In social science, quantitative analysis of human activity influence and estimation of feasibility of environmental policies have been conducted. Especially, in environmental economics, some researches have analyzed environmental tax policies with the aim of constructing socio-economic systems which do not cause environmental disruption. Though these researches analyzed Japan's socio-economic system similarly, they used different data and supposed different conditions of economy and policies. Therefore we can not compare and examine possible tax policies. In this study, we survey these previous researches to grasp each characteristic of policy, and run simulations under same condition of economy using latest data. From results of simulations, we can discuss the feasibility of environmental tax policies.
In this paper, current environment related socioeconomic state in Turkish Black Sea Basin is analyzed by using a conceptual mathematical model clarifying the interaction between socioeconomic activities and contribution of pollutants such as BOD, COD TSS, TN and TP by industrial, agricultural and other land use/land cover activities and future trends. Furthermore, we run the model dynamically from 1998 to 2009 by the specification of all sectors into 27 categories in each zone in the basin. Then we analyze the role of existing socioeconomic state the point of view in reducing the contaminants discharged into the Black Sea.
We analyze the determinants of internal long-distance migration in Japan from 1985 to 1990 (under the bubble period) by sexes and 5 years age groups using 1990 national census data. It is one of the most basic and important methods to analyze population phenomena by sexes and age groups. We have only a few preceding papers using this method in Japan however. The main models of this paper are (1) gravity model, (2) modified gravity model and (3) net migration model. We set the 10 major areas from 46 prefectures (we exclude Okinawa prefecture). We use the following variables as the independent variables: (1) P: size of population, (2) DS: physical distance, (3) IR: differentials of per capita real income, (4) LP: differentials of land price, and (5) variables of climate, AT; average temperature, SN; number of snow covered days, WDD; number of warming degree days, CDD; number of cooling degree days, DLH; daylight hours. The main results of our analysis are summarized as follows. (1) P and DS have strong explanation power for the number of internal longdistance migrants in Japan. (2) IR of destination areas shows weak but stable pulling power. Those of origin areas show different powers by age groups. Though IR of origin areas of 15-24 years old people has strong pushing power from low RI areas, that of age groups after retirement has pushing power from high RI areas. (3) Climate works people at cold areas go to warm areas, but the power is generally not prominent. It is shown that for age groups after retirements, high RI works to promote out-migration from metropolitan areas and low AT works to promote out-migration from cold areas. This phenomena is consistent with our findings that positive net-migrants after retirements are found out at Chugoku, Shikoku and Kyushu.
In general, the techniques of the policy evaluation are classified into two categories: ex-ante evaluation and ex-post evaluation. The role of the ex-ante evaluation is to remove the inefficiency in the allocation of the scarce budget. On the other hand, the role of the ex-post evaluation is ambiguous and its methodology is not well established. However, it is also true that the ex-post evaluation is strongly requested for the efficient public investment. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the following questions: “What is the role of the ex-post evaluation and which kind of methodology is needed?” Based on the contract theory, we analyzed for the mechanism which induces the undistorted implementation of the ex-ante evaluation. Further, we examined the role of the ex-post evaluation interpreting the results of the model analysis. From the results, we concluded that i) the role of the ex-post evaluation is to give the incentive for the undistorted implementation of the ex-ante evaluation to the analyst who implements the ex-ante evaluation, and ii) the methodology of the ex-post evaluation is one of the following two: to measure the realized social net benefit or to confirm the probability of the realized social state in the ex-ante forecast.
Many local governments have developed new policy evaluation systems from 1990s. The purpose of development is to build plan-do-see management circle, to promote the administrative efficiencies, to account to citizens, to improve official works. The paper analyzes the problems of local policy evaluation systems, discusses the image of citizens, designs NPOs to educate citizens for leaders in a local policy evaluation. The local policy evaluation system does not establish places and opportunities for citizens' participation, and does not provide policy information and knowledge for citizens, the policy evaluating process is leaded and managed by local governments. To change leaders of local policy evaluation from governments to citizens needs three conditions. 1) To reform the society to Prometheus-community where the people with foresight and creative idea on policy evaluation will be approved. 2) To establish a decision-making method to help the full-free-fare public selections based on the informed consent. 3) To build a social mechanism with the Lamarck's acquired character process for that new theories and tools are always practiced into the local policy evaluation. The creation of NPOs to educate citizens for leaders in the local policy evaluation needs three stages. 1) Citizens who are from different organizations but have the same concern on the policy evaluation form a citizens group. 2) Many citizens groups from various fields are involved in partnership and compose NPOs to play a role in the local policy evaluation. 3) Creative and strategic partnership actions of NPOs and citizens groups form a citizens policy evaluation school, it can take the initiative in citizens' evaluating the local policy.
Waste is generated at various stages of human activities. The Japanese government has been making it as a major policy to promote a recycling-based society, fully utilize materials and increase waste recovery. The 2000 Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling-Based Society, and related recycling regulations have strengthened the regulatory framework for waste management. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reported, “Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a policy under which producers take significant responsibility in the treatment or disposal of post-consumer products.” The principle of EPR has been incorporated into the national legislation on containers and packaging and on some appliances. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of these regulations, particularly in the case of containers and packaging, household appliances, personal computers and end-of-life vehicles.
Japan's broadcasting industry is facing a major turning point: the switch to digital terrestrial broadcasting. The broadcasting industry is not assuming a cautious stance in terms of bearing the massive capital investment for the switch to digital. The structure of the broadcasting industry has been observed in relation to this investment, which will be an extremely large burden upon regional broadcasting stations in particular, and to propose better directions for the industry to take as research objectives. Japan's broadcasting stations are characterized by their dual functions of Program Production and Transmission, i.e., vertical integration. The current research conducted vertical separation of these two integrated functions and proposed that individuals responsible for program production and transmission providers become other economic actors. Whether or not an Vertical Economies exists was investigated using the translog cost function to confirm whether vertical separation will be as effective as expected. Results of the investigation evinced that no Vertical Economies exists between these two functions. Results suggested that major obstacles may not arise even if broadcasting stations' Program Production and Transmission are vertically separate. Furthermore, Network Sharing by assembling vertically separate Transmissionminded individuals and using resources in common was proposed; what level of economic results can be expected in the future due to this Network Sharing will be measured.
The purpose of person trip survey is to collect data of trip chains, which are defined as sequences of OD (Origin-Destination) pairs. Traditionally, the person trip survey has been conducted by home-based sampling, in which samples of trip makers are drawn at random at their home. While it can be said a reliable method, the home-based person trip survey takes quite expensive cost. With this defect in mind, Saito, Nakashima, and Kakoi (2001) first have shown that there exists a consistent method to estimate OD pattern from on-site person trip survey, which drastically reduces implementation cost. Since the purpose of their paper is to show that their method is consistent, they have provided a simple numerical example only. They left various topics toward actual implementation as further research themes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of their estimation method with actual data. More specifically, we have collected consumer's shop-around data by interviewing visitors at Daimyo district, which is the hottest spot for young generation at the city center of Fukuoka City. Since consumer's shop-around is equivalent to consumer's trip chaining behavior, consumer's shop-around data collected at city center is simply seen as the data from an on-site person trip survey. Similarly, consumer's shop-around pattern at Daimyo district can be seen as an OD pattern for shoppers. With applying our consistent estimation method to consumer's shop-around data at Daimyo district, we have estimated the OD (shop-around) pattern. We also have demonstrated the effectiveness of our consistent method by comparing the estimated OD pattern with actual pedestrian flows data collected elsewhere.
This paper develops a flexible multi-dimensional assessment method for the comparison of different statistical-econometric techniques based on learning mechanisms with a view to analysing and forecasting regional labour markets. The aim of this paper is twofold. A first major objective is to explore the use of a standard choice tool, namely Multicriteria Analysis (MCA), in order to cope with the intrinsic methodological uncertainty on the choice of a suitable statistical-econometric learning technique for regional labour market analysis. MCA is applied here to support choices on the performance of various models -based on classes of Neural Network (NN) techniques-that serve to generate employment forecasts in West Germany at a regional/district level. A second objective of the paper is to analyse the methodological potential of a blend of approaches (NN-MCA) in order to extend the analysis framework to other economic research domains, where formal models are not available, but where a variety of statistical data is present. The paper offers a basis for a more balanced judgement of the performance of rival statistical tests.
Manufacturing industries are blooming rabidly in Barada Basin carrying high risk to environment and human health due to emitting huge amounts of heavy metals to environmental media, particularly rivers. Few studies show that concentrations of chromium, cadmium, and lead exceed the standards in down streams of rivers. In this paper, by developing a mathematical model that describes the interrelation between the ecological and economic systems, we run simulation to estimate amount of Cr, Cd, Pb generate from manufacturing industries annually under current economic condition. The results show that highly concentrated of these contaminants are discharged to rivers annually, which should be regarded urging us to engaging in risk assessment of these metals on environment and human health in further studies.
Waste is generated at various stages of human activities. The Japanese government has been making it as a major policy to promote a recycling-based society, fully utilize materials and increase waste recovery. The purpose of this study is to show the role of information technologly in the recycling-base society. Consumer and producer have faced many decision-makings in the treatment or disposal of post-consumer products. We examine the implementation of Radio Frequency Identification System (RFID) in the case of post-consumer products. Our simple model shows the implementation of RFID works laborsaving effect in the all lifecycle of products.
In Japan, many big projects have been carried out until now. Especially, Tokaido Shinkansen has had various effects such as economy promotion effects and development effects on the regional economy. However it is impossible to measure all the effects. Therefore, by constructing two stages Nested Logit model which consists of mode choice and destination choice, and converting the increment of the utility got from the model into the money, this study measures and examines the benefit in 1995 in time saving which is the largest effect caused by the Tokaido Shinkansen opening.
In general, travel time and travel fares are different by travel means. With the travel time transformed into money terms by time value of travelers, which can be estimated by data of modal choices, the generalized travel cost is defined as the sum of travel fares and the money term travel time. It enables one to compare different travel modes in terms of money. While many efforts have been made to measure the generalized travel costs and the time value, they are all for the purpose of transportation planning for a wide area such as the metropolitan area. As a result, they rarely have measured the time value for travelers other than commuters. In particular, few researches have been done to measure the time value for shoppers who shop around a relatively small area such as the city center retail district. In part, this is because there are no such data as the consumers' shop-around OD (origin-destination) flows that include their modal choices at city center retail district. The purpose of this paper is to measure the time value of shoppers. Based on the actual data obtained from surveys on consumer's shop-around behavior at the city center retail district of Fukuoka City, we have measured the time value of shoppers and analyzed how the time value differs by attributes of shoppers and types of shop-around behaviors. We also provide the application in which the estimated time value of shoppers is utilized to forecast modal choices when the one-dollar circuit bus is introduced at the city center retail district.
This paper is based on a questionnaire survey that was conducted on senior high school students (both in urban and rural areas) in the State of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective is to present the causal relationship using Covariance Structural Analysis of the factors that are perceived to encourage the teenagers to use the Internet service. Based on the data collected from the survey, we can also make a comparison on the levels and patterns of the Internet usage between the urban and rural teenagers in Kelantan. Then, we come up with recommendations on how to address the issue of the diffusion of Internet usage, especially on how to bridge the digital gap between the urban and rural population.
The problem of rebuilding superannuated condominiums has become a serious issue not only for large cities but for local cities as well. Local cities face many issues such as decline of a central district and financial slip. In a sense, solution to these problems would be more difficult for local cities than for large cities. This paper takes up local city of Kanazawa as a model case and study possibilities of the universal support system for rebuilding superannuated condominiums. Kanazawa is a typical local core city trying to preserve historical scenery. By combining the existent rebuilding support system and an urgent type interest supply system, we made the trial calculation that the economical burden on elderly people with small income can be mitigated. We came to conclude that giving public financial support to rebuilding project is a required policy not only to see an increase in property tax revenues but to maintain city scenery and to protect its leading industry for such local city as Kanazawa where historical scene is an important tourist attraction.
In recent years, various parking problems by increase of car traffic have become serious problems in central areas of many cities in Japan. Traffic demand is considered as the main factor of these problems. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) is focused on policy to attempt the effective use of transportation. With the progress of information and communication technology, information offer system developed. Research and development is go ahead with the field of development of an Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) project, and it is expected to be shown new directionality on solution of many problems. There is an information offer for a driver as one of a policy by an information offer. Since reaction of a driver on offered information is the basis of other many effects, we have to analyze in detail. In this study, we give attention to Parking Guidance and Information (PGI) system have been introduced on information offer system in a lot of central areas of cities. Especially in this study, we pay attention to the relationship between perception of queuing time and parking choice and switching behavior under PGI system. We use the questionnaire data obtained at the Central area of Toyohashi on holidays. As a result of analysis, we could establish that the relationship between the effects of the PGI system on drivers and various factors are significant.
The land contamination coming from various sources is a crucial issue for any country. We need a substantial amount of money to clean the soil. In addition, the contamination obstructs economic development by affecting the real estate business and consequently the effective land uses. In this study, we first see the problems of land contamination and survey the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Law. Then we examine the actual conditions of land contamination and the recent moves taken by the local governments by interviews and questionnaires to the local governments. We introduce specific examples of contaminated land and interview real estate firms to comprehend the present issues affecting the real estate deal. After these examination and analysis, we make a proposal for a practical and effective measure to land contamination.