In this study, the probability distribution of migrant population is examined on the basis that inter-regional migration is a combined process of, firstly, the household decision making, and, secondly, the probability distribution of sizes of migrating households. Though in the area of migration studies, the multinomial distribution which is used in the entropy maximizing model is well known, there are many other multivariate discrete probability distributions developed and utilized in mathematical ecology, financial engineering and other fields (Mosimann (1962, 1963), Shibuya & Shimizu (2002), Wang (2000)). Significance of these multivariate discrete probability distributions in the area of the inter-regional migration studies is explored. Further, on the assumption that the probability distribution of migrant population is a compound distribution of those of migrating households and migrating household sizes, migrating household models based on these multivariate discrete distributions are expanded for examining the characteristics of the distributions of migrating population. Expected values, variances and covariances of the migrant population are derived from the characteristic functions of the compound distributions, and it is found that the variance can be expressed as a quadratic function (without a constant) of the expected value, and that the first-order parameter is closely related to the average size of migrating households.
Biomass resource uses, such as rice husk power plants (RHPP), have attracted great interest of researchers because of their environmentally-friendly features. This study aims to analyze the macro economic impacts of RHPP in Thailand by an Input/Output analysis. Results show that i) the installation of RHPP decreased the sensitivity degree coefficients in the electricity, construction, mining and petroleum sectors, making macro economic structure more robust from change in oil price, ii) the economic merits of RHPP were mainly realized in the agricultural sector, and iii) total induced production effect in the whole country increased by introduction of RHPP, due to a decrease in induced imports and occurrence of new demand in the agriculture and food sectors.
Conventional traffic policies including TDM have attempted to switch commuters' transportation mode from the motorcar to public transportation mainly focusing on their outgoing trips. However, when commuters choose transportation modes for accessing the destinations, they consider not only the traffic service hours for their outgoing trips but also conditions for the return trips. The departure time of the final transport service and the number of bus services for evening hours are supposed to specially influence them to determine the transportation mode for their return trips. Suppose a case that although a person really wants to go to his office by bus, he cannot help commuting by car because the departure time of the last bus service for his return trip is too early for him. To promote TDM policies to minimize motorcar traffic, transport planning considering commuters' convenience in their homeward trips is necessary. The number of public bus users is being decreased year by year due to motorization development, which has seriously aggravated public bus earnings, meanwhile improvement of the level of public transport service is being demanded. Further the regulation of supply-demand adjustment of public bus services in Japan was abolished in 2002, and it realized free entry to bus service business and bus operators' discretional abolishment of bus lines. The residents have been concerned if the bus deregulation might result in deterioration of the service quality level, specifically in discontinuance of unprofitable lines and a decrease in the no. of bus services. However, bus service businesses should be managed considering not only profitability but local needs as well. Factors that are predominantly influential on users' evaluations on bus service quality are the service schedule, no. of services, and operation routes. Efficient bus service operation planning that takes into consideration local needs for these factors is indispensable toward the future. This study focused on commuters' return trips whose details have not been fully identified, and through commuter's attitude surveys investigated co-relations between bus service availability improvement for commuters' return trips and their selection of transportation modes. Further, this study analyzed users' evaluations on bus service quality by the improved window method that applies DEA to identify efficiency values of the bus services by district and bus operation schedule for return trips.
Automobiles have changed humans' lifestyles. Motorization and suburbanization have changed human behavior to one that is reliant on automobiles. Consequently, most of us are diagnosed as sedentary: short of exercise. It is also increasingly clear that the shortage of exercise is not good for human health. It is recommended that everyone should practice light exercise habitually, such as walking. It is easily imagined that urban planning to encourage walking can improve the situation. It is also clear that past urban planning has not considered this topic. If we focus on conventional planning for residential areas, housing with sufficient space has priority. To improve urban planning for residential areas considering quality of life, we must know the relationship between the urban form and residents' walking behavior. First, this study aims to develop a new method to measure the walking volume of each activity and trip using an original survey. Second, the walking volume of each resident is estimated by residential zone type. National Person Trip Survey (NPTS) data are applied to obtain general results through Japan. Third, several ideas concerning urban improvement are suggested to shift walking from driving. Results show that public transportation users tend to walk more than automobile users. It is clarified that residents who live in the center of metropolitan areas used to walk more than 3,000 steps per day for various trips. On the other hand, those who live in distant suburbs of cities typically walk less than 1,000 steps for various trips. These results show that reform for a compact urban layout must present effective methods to encourage healthy walking.
In recent years, the global environment has been regarded as one of the most important international public goods. Using the simple public good model, this paper examines an economic implication of the transfer from home country to a foreign country on the global environment and each country's economic welfare. In the literature of international transfers, it has been shown that any slight reallocations of initial endowment between two countries have no effect on the quantity of an international public good and the level of each country's economic welfare. It is important, however, to notice that there are some cases initial endowment of one country can not been transfered to the other country. This paper constructs a model where home country sends to a foreign country an amount of a good which is produced in home country. The result in this paper is as follows. If home country produces a good more efficiently and less harmfully to the global environment than a foreign country, the increase of transfer of the good makes better the global environment and improves the economic welfare of not only the foreign country which receives the transfer but also home country which sends it. On the contrary, if home country produces a good less efficiently and more harmfully to the global environment than the foreign country, the increase of transfer of the good makes worse the global environment and deteriorates the economic welfare of not only home country which sends the transfer but also the foreign country which receives it.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the local environmental impact of recycling organic resources in agricultural sector in terms of waste treatments and CO2 emission by focusing on Hokkaido region in which there are much more farm organic resources than the other regions in Japan. We estimate the input-output model for Hokkaido region considered the recycling activities of farm organic resources. Using the Leontief inverse matrix within and between economic activities and waste treatments, the findings are as follows : Recycling farm organic resources in the agricultural sector (except livestock) contributes to the reduction in incineration requirement of waste by 321 tons and the reduction in landfill requirement of waste by 162 tons compared with the case in which the resources are not recycled. On the other hand, it induces the increase in CO2 emission of 19 thousand tons. The result of CO2 emission implies that the effect caused by the increase in “recycling sectors of animal dung and urine”, “electricity” and “coal & petroleum” exceeds the effect caused by the decrease in “chemical fertilizer” in Hokkaido region. These results imply that energy recovery process of waste and increase of transport efficiency are also needed for reducing local environmental burden more effectively.
There are four types of water supply systems in Japan such as large water supply systems, small water supply systems, bulk water supply systems and small private water supply systems. While water supply systems have at least three activities such as water intake, water purification and water delivery, the only bulk water supply systems don't have water delivery but have water intake and water purification. Bulk water supply systems are owned by prefecture or water supply authority which is established by some local governments, so bulk water supply systems therefore are thought of as they aim to increase productivity of water intake and water purification activities through widespread coordination. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cost structures of bulk water supply systems. The process of this analysis is as follows: (1) estimate the translog cost function and adopt hedonic output specification which contains some product quality variables, (2) include network variable in the cost model and identify economy of density and economy of scale. We obtain the results that some product quality variables have positive impacts to the cost structure and economy of density does exist (1.685) whereas economy of scale shows a constant return to scale (1.020) at the sample mean point.
Regional management has become an important aspect of Regional Science. Such management should be considered not only from an economical standpoint but also from the standpoint of satisfaction with life. This study evaluates the regional management efficiency of Japan's 46 prefectures by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), a method of determining efficiency in terms of output per input for each Decision Making Unit (DMU). DEA makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency by multiple input-output item analyses, to conduct relative evaluation by non-uniform weighting of input-output item, and to produce an improvement plan of management efficiency for each DMU. Analyzing the efficiency of Japan's 46 prefectures, we compared the case in which only economics were considered to the case in which both economics and satisfaction with life were considered. These comparisons highlighted the importance of satisfaction with life as an aspect of regional management. The improvement plans of management efficiency for each prefecture were analyzed, and the improvement methods of regional management efficiency were pointed out.
It is indispensable to promote consumers' local shopping behavior for the vitalization of the regional shopping area and the realization of a compact city. The purchase of goods by consumers inside their local shopping area is called inshopping. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of consumers' inshopping intentions and behavior using structural equation modeling. A quantitative consumer survey was conducted in Tokyo, and structural equation modeling was applied to the consumer data to find the determinants of inshopping. We found that 1) the level of preference for the small-sized retailer, 2) the level of evaluation of the local shopping area and 3) the preference for personal communication were all significant in explaining consumer inshopping intentions and behavior. The features in the cause and effect model notably stipulate that the level of preference for the small-sized retailer is the key mediating variable determining inshopping intentions. We discuss implications of the results of this exploratory study.
In countries where the development and improvement of public transport (PT) have many constraints, a Logical Planning Model that deals with a logical representation of a multi-dimensional process is essential. Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, is an area of low level of transit availability. The major modes of public transport in the city are buses and taxis and there is no rail transit within the city. Due to many factors, the existing bus service is of a low quality. Limited number of buses, the poor management and financial insecurity of the solitary government owned bus company and an inadequate cost recovery system are some of these factors. Taxis have many constraints in their operation including bad drivers' behaviour, excessive fare and high accident rate. Limited accessibility, lack of information systems, low frequency, the wider gap between demand and supply and inadequate infrastructure are identified as key problems of the overall public transport service. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the existing situation and prospects of the public transport service and drawing strategic scenarios for future development and improvement. The Logical Planning Model is proposed to plan and evaluate improvement programs for public transportation in the city. Survey analysis, calculation of bus availability indices in each Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and urban transport project documents are implemented for situational assessment and problem identification in order to use the Logical Planning Model.
This paper tries to evaluate the regulatory effects of CO2 emissions by implementing environmental policies related on automobiles. Japanese Ministry of Transport set up a target of the GHG emission level of transport sector at 2008 to 2012 as 17% increasing level from 1990 level. In order to comply with this target, Ministry of Transport has been introduced two main environmental policies related on automobiles; those are mileage regulation by top runner method and Green taxes. While these two policies are expected to generate synergistic effects to reduction of CO2 emissions, these policies are also afraid to have possibilities for increasing CO2 emissions through traffic volumes induced by being decreased automobile use costs. This is called by rebound effect in the field of environment. Hence we evaluate regulatory effects of CO2 emissions included its rebound effects by applying the dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model. The model has characteristics of explicit formulation of the automobile related industrial and transport sector's behavior and household travel behavior. With the numerical simulations by this model, we identify reduced volumes of CO2 by introducing the mileage regulation by top runner method and Green taxes as present policies. The results are that the decreased rate of CO2 is 6% in 2010. But it is not reach the target of the GHG emission level of transport sector.
In recent years, travel patterns have been diversified due to the tempo-spatial changes of city structures or traveler characteristics caused by the rapid development of motorization, suburbanization, etc., and yet at the same time in transportation demand modeling, more accurate analysis by considering these changes of socio-economic structure is required. Furthermore, many conventional urban transportation planning were drawn up mainly in consideration of commuting trips or business trips, which are typical and undertaken only on weekdays. However, recently with changes in lifestyle or increase in leisure time, the trip generation for discretionary activities such as shopping, leisure, etc. has risen, and then various traffic problems are stressed especially on weekend. In spite of increasing the importance in formulating prediction model for discretionary trips on weekend, the previous researches including those on weekdays are not necessary enough and it can be said that more detailed analysis is still sorely needed. This study mainly focuses on the urban travel behavior on weekdays and weekend, and aims to build a model of trip generation for discretionary trips. After examining the actual condition of discretionary trips, it hypothesizes that there is a common factor which affects the generation of discretionary trips performed on both weekdays and weekend, and that weekday and weekend trips are mutually influenced. Then, by applying a covariance structural model it examines the hypothesis and estimates the effects of various factors on the generation of discretionary trips. Finally, temporal structural comparisons of trip generation between two points in time are examined and discussed. As a result, statistical results suggest that there is a common factor which affects travel behavior on weekdays and weekend as well as factor which is specific to either weekdays or weekend. In ten years from 1991 to 2001, weekday and weekend discretionary trips had become less dependent on the common factor. It was also found that effects of weekend constrained trips on the generation of discretionary trips are significant especially on weekend.
JEL classification: Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
The economic growth and regional disparity in China is important issue. In this study we focus on the industrial sector that becomes the key to the economic growth of China, and to investigate what influence the efficiency or productivity gives to regional disparity. Aggregated firm-level data of 31 regions since 1998 is employed. And, the Malmquist productivity index based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is measured. In this index, the scale economy effect is also considered. Finally, the relation between the productivity of the industrial sector and the regional disparity will be clarified by these results.
Urban and peripheral agriculture (UPA) is one of the critical factors when urban sustainability is taken into consideration. UPA is considered to be possible to threaten the sustainability of cities while it is considered to have great contributions to the sustainable development of cities at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary for UPA to maintain the balance of three factors, i.e. economic efficiency, sociality, and environmental conservation. However, the relative importance of each factor may vary depending on the difference of countries, regions and time. According to Kiminami and Kiminami (2006), the functions of urban agriculture expected by urban residents in advanced countries such as Tokyo of Japan are changing from the function of producing agricultural goods to the others, i.e. the functions of creating landscapes, ensuring land conservation and sustainable management of renewable natural resources and providing environmental benefits, etc. On the other hand, along with the rapid urbanization in developing countries, huge amount people have migrated from rural to urban area. Such kind of situation has caused the problems of environmental pollution, urban poverty and shortage of nutrition in cities on one side, and an enlargement of urban and peripheral agriculture on the other. The contribution of UPA on GDP in developing countries has drawn more and more attention. Amongst Shanghai is one of the most notable cities. In this research, the sustainability of agriculture in Shanghai will be analyzed from the aspects of economic efficiency, sociality and environmental conservation by taking the method of questionnaire survey intended for the residents on urban agriculture.
This paper addresses a number of significant theoretical and empirical issues which remain unresolved in the existing literature. Existing literatures are yet sufficient to provide a fully adequate basis for a new valuation approach that takes into account the specific nature of mortality risks. The paper presents an integrated conceptual model that draws on our review of both the theoretical and empirical literature. The theoretical models developed in this study tried to provide measures of the value of reducing long-term risk for individual and family members. The presented model shows how parents establish the VSL for their children in their early years. This model suggests that parents' altruism to their children and own wealth may well lead to a higher VSL than the discounted present value of the child's wealth argument suggests.
JEL classification: Q5-Environmental Economics, Q51-Valuation of Environmental Effects
This paper shows an optimal public investment allocations for urban and rural areas, respectively. In analyzing the optimal policy, I use a model with two regions and two production sectors consisting of a service sector and a manufacture sector. This paper concludes that, where the economy has greater public infrastructure elasticity of manufacture product, smaller public infrastructure productivity of service sector, and a smaller scale economies, the optimal policy is to invest more in the rural area.
Structural reforms focusing on decentralization of power have allowed local governments to undertake a broader range of cultural activities than ever before. However, such activities are mainly financed with subsidies from the national government and donations from companies, because local governments do not have sufficient sources of revenue on their own. Meanwhile, the 21st century is being called the era of art and culture. Although local citizens are impacted mentally as well as economically by the deteriorating employment situation, they are mentally encouraged by artistic and cultural activities. Moreover, there have been a growing number of cases where local communities are revitalized by artistic and cultural activities. This research is designed to identify activities that local citizens can experience in daily life in an effort to see if the local communities have gained control over cultural activities that used to be shackled by subsidies, guidance and advice from the national government (in other words, to see if such local cultural activities meet the needs of this era of decentralization). The data reflect financial aspects of these activities quite accurately. Having said that, each local government takes different measures for the target activities, from improving local cultural standards (e.g., increasing the number of local citizens who appreciate such activities), preserving traditional performing arts, enhancing publicity, increasing the number of people engaged in exchange programs, to community development (e.g., measures against depopulation). It is worth noting that most of these activities are undertaken by municipalities and non-profit organizations. While the 21st century has been dubbed the era of decentralization with the 1999 passage of the Law Concerning Decentralization of Government Authority, local governments receive subsidies exceeding 50% of their budgets from the Japan Foundation for Regional Art Activities under the control of the Agency for Cultural Affairs.
As main frameworks for marine environmental cooperation in the East Asia, two programmes can be identified-NOWPAP (North-west Pacific Action Plan) and PEMSEA (Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia). While NOWPAP, one of UNEP's Regional Seas Programmes, emphasizes reform of environmental legislation and information database, PEMSEA, with aim to achievement of sustainable development of the Seas of East Asia, has implemented various projects to incorporate environmental objectives in all stage of economic development. PEMSEA has projects to promote Integrated Coastal Management (ICM), environmental risk assessment and management, capacity building, partnerships among various stakeholders, etc. In this study, following the description on the implementation status of activities under PEMSEA, the needs for a comprehensive assessment framework for the programme are identified. Then, this article presents a method to evaluate effects of projects implemented under PEMSEA in quantitative manner, because the existing evaluations of PEMSEA activities have focused on qualitative aspects. The presented system model is formulated to include not only environmental data but also socio-economic factors such as GRP, industrial production, activities of marine industry, change of population, etc. Such quantitative evaluation method is useful when each stakeholder examines real benefit of regional marine environmental cooperation and decides on how to commit such activities. Especially, the evaluation model will provide important suggestion toward Japanese environmental diplomacy in East Asia.