The purpose of this study was to propose a parallel and distributed computation system for the multi-regional and multi-sectoral economic model. A numerical method is constructed by integrating the worldwide information network with the object oriented language. A simulation method to solve intra-regional, inter-regional, intra-sub-regional, and inter-sub-regional models is proposed. In this paper, several conditions for partial and general equilibria are defined for the static multi-regional and multi-sectoral economic model. Applying the HORB, an object oriented and distributed system, a prototype simulation model of the parallel and distributed system was developed. The computation performance of the prototype system was evaluated using the client-server system on the HORB.
Transportation infrastructure predominantly supports regional development. This study focuses on a plan to construct High Speed Surface Transportation (HSST), a new magnetic levitation type of transit system in Shiga prefecture. Comprehensive consideration, is needed to plan a new transit system in a local area, not only from the technical and financial aspects, but also from its social influence. In this study, the social psychology research method was applied by a questionnaire survey to explore the factors that lead people to choose and accept HSST in the future. The study tests the fit of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) by the Structure Equation Model (SEM) with the information from the residents of Otsu City and Kusatsu City. Results show that the data fit the TPB model moderately well and explain the residents' intentions in accepting the transit. Perceived behavior control, as a construct of TPB, was found to be most closely related to the intentions. This study could be a meaningful experiment for adapting the social psychology theory to transportation planning. Finally, recommendations are proposed based on the results of the model to ensure future ridership.
The estimation of passenger car ownership is a crucial estimation for auto-related production and for the analysis of many transportation-related policies such as Green House Gas (GHG), emissions, and energy consumption policies. Previous studies of car ownership estimation have generally focused on accurate adherence to the track record, statistical signification, or model structure; however, there are problems in focusing on all these factors together. The purpose of our passenger car ownership estimation model with the Business as Usual scenario —JARI BAU Model—. JARI BAU Model is to estimate passenger car ownership by resolving these difficulties. Our passenger car ownership estimation model with the JARI BAU Model for the demand function is intended to provide information on the total passenger car ownership in Japan from the present time until the year 2030. This paper is unique in that it attempts to estimate car ownership solely on the basis of socioeconomic trends, without including the physical characteristics of automobiles such as fuel economy, vehicle age, or infrastructure development. The BAU model estimates 57.28 million passenger vehicles in 2010 and 61.59 million in 2030. The estimation model improves both the accuracy and statistical estimation.
The information and communication technology (ICT) development and expenditure in Malaysia has been growing since the start of the ICT evolution to promote the integration, network and sharing of information among sectors. Research institutes play an important role to support the economic and technological growth through emergence of new product goods, services and processes. This paper is based on the questionnaire survey that was conducted on the researchers at the government research institutes (GRI) and private research institutes (PRI) that use ICT applications. The objectives are to identify the purpose of using ICT applications to signify the presence of information sharing in the development of different product types at the diffusion level of market finding and commercialization. From the finding, it is found that the purpose of using ICT applications for the sharing of information in the GRI and PRI is influenced by product type. Portal that diffused to the level of market finding acts as the tool for sharing information for researchers in GRI for product goods, service and process. In contrast, groupware that used for market finding in PRI is found to be significant only for product service. PRI share information by using the intranet for commercialization, while in contrast, GRI that lack of information to commercialize the product have to rely much on information from the external source and this contributes the usage of groupware.
JEL Classification: D85, O33, Z13 Abbreviations: Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Research and Development (R&qmp;D), Government Research Institutes (GRI), Private Research Institutes (PRI), Institutes of Higher Learning (IHL), Multinational Company (MNC), Malaysian Science and Technology Information Center (MASTIC), Gross Expenditure on R&qmp;D (GERD), Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
This paper reexamines Martin Heidegger's ontological or existential theory and applies it to regional science, referring to the ideas of Watsuji Tetsuro, a Japanese philosopher in his book “Fudo (Climate and Culture)”. Therefore, we consider a social ontological vision of human beings that is essential for sustainable development in the region. Next we examine the relations between region of the special times and human beings in modern Japan based on the writings of Fukuzawa Yukichi, a representative intellectual and pressman during the early Meiji period, and Ishibashi Tanzan, an economic pressman during the prewar times and a leading statesman after World War II. Subsequently, we investigate the recent economic position of Japan in the world (especially in East Asia) in the contemporary times. We point out some essential problems in Japan for regional sustainable development in the future. JEL Classification: B31, F02, O19, R11, R12, R58
Wildasin  and DePater and Myers  identified sources of inefficiency in capital tax competition models that should be internalized by the Pigovian device. Incorporating tax-evading behavior into the tax competition model, this paper clarifies another source of inefficiency and examines how the optimal corrective subsidy must be revised. Our results show that the existence of fiscal externality and tax evasion induce an undersupply of public goods as normal goods, and that more complicated subsidy is necessary to achieve an efficient outcome.
Previously, it was difficult for local governments to formulate and implement original local taxes. However, the revision of the Local Tax Law in 2000 facilitated the formulation and implementation of original local taxes by local governments. Accordingly, Mie and other prefectures began to impose taxes on industrial waste (hereafter referred to as “industrial waste taxes”). In Japan, each industry is responsible for disposing its own waste. They either treat the waste in their own plants or entrust this task to licensed contractors. Since most industries do not have their own plants, they entrust the treatment of waste to licensed contractors. Environmental taxes are primarily imposed in order to ensure a better environment; the tax revenues are of secondary importance. Therefore, while discussing the nature and effectiveness of industrial waste taxes, it is important to verify whether or not these taxes affected the environment through the changes in prices that resulted from their imposition. Previous researches have shown that merely such a discussion is insufficient; therefore, we attempt to analyze the effectiveness of these taxes using practical data. It is argued that the main effect of imposing industrial waste taxes has been the emergence of a motivation to reduce waste. However, since industries are already required to pay a disposal treatment fee to the contractors, it is possible that such a motivation existed before the imposition of these taxes. It is natural to presume that imposing a tax incentivizes a shift from undertaking taxable actions to tax-free actions. For example, in Mie prefecture, ordinary waste treatment facilities are taxable; however, improved treatment facilities that enable a recycling ratio of over 90% are tax-free. In general, although the latter treatment facilities are more expensive, the imposition of these taxes may result in them being more lucrative for industries. In this study, we sequentially obtained practical data on each contractor that undertakes industrial waste treatment in Mie prefecture. Thereafter, we attempted to compare the number of orders for taxable facilities and tax-free facilities before and after the imposition of the tax. Consequently, we found that in general, the orders for the tax-free facilities exceeded those for the taxable facilities. Further study is required regarding the tax rate and the outflow of waste to other tax-free areas.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamic properties of environmental R&D and environmental policies by analyzing the infinite horizon differential game between two governments. In this paper, we formulate the differential games that need to be solved by the two governments and derive and characterize the unique open-loop and Markov-perfect Nash equilibrium solutions. By comparing the two equilibrium solutions, we explore the free-riding behavior of governments with regard to pollution control. We derive and compare the steady-state levels of emission tax, pollution stock and social welfare. In addition, we derive the convergence speed of pollution control under the respective equilibrium solutions. In conclusion, compared to the Markov-perfect Nash equilibrium solution, we obtain a higher emission tax, a lower pollution stock, a higher social welfare and a slower pace of pollution control under the open-loop Nash equilibrium solution.
A value system created by the so-called “loud minority,” a small group of experts who have collaborated with the government and business corporations, has percolated into society through the implementation of their policy measures. As a result, risks capable of bringing about diversified and complex effects have expanded in our society. At a time when the importance of creating a society fostered by the participation of citizens has been increasingly recognized, it has become necessary for us to devise a policy assessment method that can reflect values held by the overwhelming majority of future ordinary citizens who cannot essentially express their demands. “Risk communication” is one of abilities that humans have acquired in the process of their biological evolution as “a life-sustaining device.” Such a device is designed to maximize the length of time that humans can spend comfortably in the Earth environment packed with all sorts of risks, and is designed to maximize the chances of their survival. Risk communication is thus an indispensable element in the process of humans making publicly acceptable policy choices by integrating their individually made subjective value judgments into a more universal value system.
The purpose of this paper is to study the situation of the environment in developing countries, and to show a sustainable development path for the society. To attain this, adequate sets of indicators or indices concerned with sustainable development as well as the environmental situation are needed. Accordingly, a major task of this paper will be to develop a new set of indicators of sustainable development and environment. Recently, the environmental situation in many developing countries has deteriorated. Environmental problems are expanding and becoming more complicated. To tackle these problems, we should arrange for data sets adequate to lead to an accurate assessment of causalities between economic-social structure and environmental problems. In this study, my viewpoint focused on the United Nation's CSD (the Commission on Sustainable Development) Indicators. By making some amendments to the CSD Indicators, a new version of the CSD Indicators was composed and some empirical investigations concerning sustainable development are given. The major findings of this paper are as follows. First, problems occur in data-shortage related to the environment especially in non-OECD countries. Second, the new version of the CSD Indicators can be effectively used to analyze environmental issues. Finally, policy implications are proposed for environmental conservation and sustainable development. The CSD Indicators should be amended and used for measures of environmental analysis and policymaking.
To give a general impression on the fast development of Chinese retailing, this paper reports a study on pedestrian shopping behavior in two city centers, East Nanjing Road and Wang Fujing Street in Shanghai and Beijing. Similarities and differences in pedestrian profiles, activities and movement patterns are generalized from a comparison of statistics from the two groups. Although their social-physical backgrounds are similar, the results indicate similarities in pedestrian profiles and movement patterns but differences in activities, and reflect some fundamental differences in the retail content and development stage of the two streets in during the modernization process.
In Japan, land prices had increased rapidly until around 1990, especially in the major metropolitan areas between the Bubble economies. So we think that differentials of land prices can be one of the important determinants of long-distance migration. We performed lots of regression analyses using net migration rates NM as dependent variable and real personal income RI, land price LP and present value of lifetime income PV as independent variables. PV is calculated as Sjaastad (1962)'s cost associated with residence of human capital model, using lifetime income and the money to get lot for new house. The results of our analysis are summarized as follows. First, time series regression analysis of Tokyo and Nagoya major metropolitan area's net migration rates to rural areas shows that coefficients of LP have significant negative sign. Second, cross section regression analysis of 10 areas in Japan shows that LP has significant negative coefficients from 1965-70 to 1990-95. Third, cross section regression analysis of 10 areas in return migration in their twenties shows that PV has significant positive coefficients. Therefore we can conclude that land prices have negative effects on the long-distance migration in post-war Japan.
In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that agglomeration has an important effect on the location choice of Japanese electronics firms in China in line with Krugman , Fujita and Krugman , Fujita, Krugman, and Venables  (new economic geography, in short NEG). Using the data from Cyugoku Sinsyutsu Kigyou Ichiran 2003-2004 (Japanese enterprise investments in China 2003-2004), we estimated a location choice model of Japanese electronics firms with market potential, industrial agglomeration and traditional factors such as wage, infrastructure and policy incentives as explanatory variables. The results of this estimation showd that the agglomeration effects play an important role in choices for location of Japanese electronics firms in China.
The motive of willingness-to-pay (WTP) was considered to be selfish only in the past and recently altruism was added as the motive. Decisions based on concerns for others tend to be evaluated from the viewpoint of altruism in Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). In this paper, the decisions are considered to be based on reciprocal and altruistic motives. Payment motive mechanisms of social decisions based on reciprocity were examined. An individual's expectation for reciprocal action from a planner appears to be included in his social decision. According to the characteristics of reciprocity, we suggest that individual states of WTP are adversely affected when a person has hostile impressions of planner's action or behavior. In addition, this paper describes the overall composition of payment motive and the status of reciprocity.
In this study, we analyze a dynamic optimal policy and evaluate new technologies to improve the water quality of a lake, considering both the total ecological system in and around the lake and situational changes over a certain period of time. Three sub-models (the socio-economic model, the material flow balance model and the water cycle model) and one objective function were specified in order to analyze optimal policies to improve the water quality of Lake Kasumigaura. The socio-economic model describes the social and economic activities in the catchment area and the relationship between the activities and the emission of pollutants. The material flow balance model describes change in the amount of generation and flow of pollutants in the lake and the rivers. The optimal policies were derived so as to maximize the objective function (GRP) subject to the structural equations that describe both the ecosystem and socio-economic system. The pollutants measured in this study were nitrogen, phosphorus and COD which strongly affect the deterioration of water quality.
The Basic Plans of revitalizing central Tottori City will be lead by the citizens of the city. More specifically, to make it work, the city has established a committee to embrace ideas and proposals from citizens regarding the city revitalization.
We investigated economic stagnation in two major industries, food processing and electronics, in Tottori prefecture. These two major industries have been stagnant since the latter half of the 1990's. Compared to the national trend for each industry, they showed greater and longer slump. The structural characteristics of both industries are the main factors of stagnation. There are three factors in the food processing industry. First, a shortage in raw materials caused the price of products to become very high. Second, the attitude of consumers toward food has changed. Third, the rise of big supermarkets and other economic factors have brought pressure for low prices to the market. The food-processing industry in Tottori has not adapted well to these changes. In the electronics industry, small and medium sized companies have been agglomerated under large companies invited from other prefectures. In addition, the electronics industry of Japan extensively moved operations to other Asian countries during the 1990's. The electronics industry in Tottori has not been able to change its structural characteristics and has faced stagnation with a decrease in small and medium sized companies during this time.
This article analyses inter-linkage among regimes related to regulation of whaling and deliberates on the implications for Japanese whaling policy in the future. International regulation of whaling consists of not only the International Whaling Commission (IWC), but also the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES), and relevant regional regulatory regimes. This article shows that linkage between UNCLOS and IWC generated synergistic effect and further promoted another linkage between UNCLOS and North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). Based on the result of the analysis, the implications for whaling diplomacy of the government of Japan were derived. Since the adoption of a moratorium on commercial whaling in 1982, regulation of whaling under IWC emphasized protection of whale stocks, rather than utilization of the resource. Japan argued that such situation of IWC goes against the objective of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. On that ground, Japanese delegation states that withdrawal from the IWC is an option. However, even if Japan withdraws from the IWC, it will not mean that Japan can resume commercial whaling at her own discretion. In the case of withdrawal from IWC, how to fulfill the requirement of UNCLOS—to work through appropriate international organizations for conservation, management and study of cetaceans—will be a problem. Not only resumption of commercial whaling, but also the continuation of scientific whaling in Antarctic will raise the same problem. An option for appropriate international organization would be Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), although in-depth consideration of policy inter-linkage and compatibility between scientific activities under CCAMLR and scientific whaling is necessary.