Ulrich Beck says the essential concept of the risk society is transformed to the world scale after 9/11. According to public polls, many people are now seriously concerned of terrorist attacks. This paper examines real circumstances from hard realism as well as community collaboration for security responses in the United States. US current policy places the high priority on countermeasures against terrorism. It is demonstrated that the US has been continuously at war. Its defense strategies have shifted to defending terrorist networks and the homeland. Total funding for homeland security has grown significantly. For 2008, government budget for homeland security has increased to $61.1 billion. A number of simulations including demonstration attack by NGO accelerated concerns of vulnerability of nuclear power plants. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) took various immediate actions to go to the highest level of security. It required nuclear power plants to verify plant design, intensify security personnel, improve emergency preparedness, enhance physical protection features and provide additional training. Security programs have been repeatedly revised. Physical security at nuclear power plants is provided by well-armed and well-trained security systems including access control to respond to 24 hours attack. The NRC is conducting force on force exercises using trained adversaries on real fighting basis. On the other aspect, this study pays attention to the unique collaborating autonomous organization on community basis, which is known as CARD (Collaborating Agencies Responding to Disaster), in a link with new concept of social capital. Anthony Giddens and Robert Putnam raised consolidation of the concept of civil society and voluntary groups in community. In this connection, this paper refers to inequality to disturb collaboration base. CARD is a typical component of autonomous social sector, which supports a cost-effective manner to build voluntary community networks. Japanese people should be aware of its responsibility to use large amount of oil, which directly connect with world risk. Such risk to be shared by the world cannot be resolved by traditional hard power only as Joseph Nye suggests. It is very important to build democratic governance and active civil society as more essential condition for ensuring security rather than force to force counter-measures. We should make efforts to shift policy balance to somewhat human security aiming at building equitable and sustainable world without being pushed aside by conventional security policy. In particular, Japan must lead to establish an international agreement to regulate arms exports.
Questionnaire surveying has been one of the main means for surfacing the needs of local residents by the local government or community and these survey results have been utilized to make policies in almost all local governments in Japan. In this study, based on a questionnaire survey conducted in Shingu Town, Hyogo prefecture in 2004, we found questions that ask satisfaction and importance level of 55 living environment items by means of ordinal scale tend to overestimate residents' needs. This is because of external effects from local public facilities and services such as option values and prestige values. Therefore we propose the introduction of quantification methods such as CVM (Contingent Valuation Method), AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and Conjoint Analysis to determine the local issues and create a local community that is effectively managed. Particularly, we examined the applicability of an extended version of AHP named “Relative Position Measurement Approach” which has been proposed by A. Mori, S. Suzuki, K. Suzuki and H. Igarashi. To do this, firstly, we designed a question asking local residents for marking relative importance of 6 different living environment fields such as social infrastructure, health and welfare, education and culture, and public participation on a 0 to 10 cardinal scale. Then answers from 680 respondents out of 4,860 households in Shingu Town were processed through AHP weighting process to calculate importance weights for 6 living environment fields. Finally, statistical analysis such as multiple regression analysis and correlation analysis were applied to compare the relationship between estimated importance weights over 6 living environment fields calculated by applying AHP and importance levels evaluated over 55 living environment items which are grouped into 6 upper rank living environment fields. The results strongly supported our hypothesis that each importance evaluation on ordinal scale overestimates the real needs for local public facilities and services. Furthermore, a question that value of calculated weights might be affected by the structure of evaluation items or attributes hierarchy is raised. As a further extension of this study, we discuss the viability of a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based feedback system to provide questionnaire results to local residents.
In this paper, we construct a model for management of farmland in rural communities to examine the effect of change in farm laborers. Based on the rural community data of Ishikari and Sorachi regions in Hokkaido paddy fields, we empirically found that the decrease in and aging of farm laborers negatively contributes to farm management. The results also showed that community-level activity organized by multiple generations and large-scale infrastructural development positively contribute to the conservation of farmland. We conclude this paper by evaluating the importance of social and physical capital in providing sufficient farm laborin rual community.
Some developing countries have an incentive to relax environmental regulation in order to attract foreign direct investments. These so called “pollution havens” tempt relocation of firms from developed countries that have strict environmental regulations. The governments of developed countries must take this into consideration when they design domestic environmental policies. In this paper, I examine the emission tax policy for Cournot duopolists that relocate to another country with no emission tax. Introduction of a strategic emission tax for interruption of relocation to a “pollution haven” was found effective. However, there is still the possibility that duopolists in developed countries will relocate abroad even if the regulator pre-commits the emission tax rate. As pointed out by Petrakis and Xepapadeas , the regulator faces a regulatory hold-up problem when the set-up cost of relocation is sufficiently low and environmental damage is serious. Therefore, adoption of an emission tax should only occur when the set-up costs are sufficiently large.
In this study, the values for both, “improvement of a sidewalk” and “barrier-free education for primary school children” were estimated by the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) for “improvement of a sidewalk” was 3,610 yen/year/household in Suita City. Whereas, the WTP for “barrier-free education for primary school children” was 1,520 yen/year/household. Secondly, we carried out a cost benefit analysis on the total WTP of all households in Suita City and predicted the maintenance costs. The net benefit of “improvement of a sidewalk” was approximately 6,600 million yen, and the cost benefit ratio was 2.0. The net benefit of “barrier-free education for primary school children” was approximately 5,100 million yen, and the cost benefit ratio was 10.0. The results demonstrate the validity of the fiscal spending for both “improvement of a sidewalk” and “barrier-free education for primary school children”.
We consider the Cournot duopoly model under the assumption that cost functions are a cubic function of own and competitors' outputs. Therefore, we incorporated a negative external effect into cost functions because cost functions lead to non-monotonic, in particular unimodal reaction functions. The shape of the reaction curve is the same as the Puu  model. The number and the stability of the Nash-equilibrium depend on the degree of external effect and the differences in the coefficients of the cost functions. If there exists no differences in the coefficients, the three Nash-equilibria increase the degree of external effects, and the adjustment fails to converge to any equilibria. If there exists differences in the coefficients, the number of equilibria decrease in some cases, but do not always mean stabilization of the Nash-equilibrium. The Nash-equilibrium becomes unstable again when the differences expand. If there exist differences in the coefficients, a general cubic equation must be solved to result in the Nash-equilibrium. The shape of the solutions is algebraically complex, because they have a cube root. The stability of the Nash-equilibrium is explained by graphical methods. In the graphical methods, the boundaries that result in the the discriminant solutions becoming zero to provide some information.
In this paper we consider the design of environmental policies for illegal waste disposal problems using a model that consists of the firm and administration. The first feature of this paper introduces the penalty for evasive action by a firm that illegally disposes wastes. The second clarifies the influence information disclosures exert on policy design by comparison analysis of the disclosure of information on the monitoring budget (information disclosure strategy) and no disclosure (information closed-door strategy). The main conclusions of this paper are as follows. The first conclusion of this paper is different from Becker (1968) that insists that it is necessary to raise the penalty level to the upper bound. That is, we showed that the penalty level should not be increased to the upper bound because the larger penalty level promotes evasion of the penalty. The second conclusion is that the monitoring budget under the information disclosure strategy is larger than under the information closed-door strategy. Also we showed that the penalty level under the information disclosure strategy is smaller than under the information closed-door strategy.
This paper discusses immigration policies that have been transformed by the economic, social, and political situation in the United States and presents implications for an immigration policy for Japan. It has often been said that Japan should be open to foreign workers, even during negotiations at Free Trade Agreement (FTA), because of a growing labor shortage and because the global economy has influenced the size, structure and nature of migration flows. After investigating Temporary Workers Programs that the United States has employed since the 1990's and that have had significant impact on skilled labor flow, which has often been described as “brain circulation”, a possible approach called “win-win circulation” is discussed for Japanese immigration policies.
This paper examines an ideal way for consensus building of flood control projects for the local residents along the Ishikari River. The history of floods and flood control projects along the Ishikari River was examined to verify the efforts of the public administration and the local residents in consensus building for flood control projects from Meiji era until today. The results reveal a great difference between flood control projects and other infrastructure projects in consensus building. The primary reason for this difference comes from the purpose of flood control projects to secure the safety of lives and production against the natural disaster. A common recognition of this characteristic of flood control projects is essential for attempting an agreement on a project.
The growth indexes for industrial production, individual consumption, and the employment market in the Tokai region were powerfully recovered in the 2000s. The Tokai region is a leading area in the manufacturing industry of Japan. This paper examines the factors that determine business cycle fluctuations in three prefectures of the Tokai region, Aichi, Gifu, and Mie, and compares their regional characteristics. First, we compare the business cycle of the three Tokai prefectures in regards to turning point and duration based on DI (diffusion index) and CI (composite index). In addition, we show that three characteristics, the annual percentage rates of the real GDP, gross prefectural production, and the monthly percentage index of industrial production and index of overtime working hours, have a strong effect on the business cycle. Furthermore, the growth rate in the index of industrial production impacts on the duration of expansion. Second, we examine the factors that cause business cycle fluctuations in the three Tokai prefectures. The level of the peaks and troughs in business cycles fluctuate according to the capital composition of corporations. We measured the economic impacts of industrial compositions of each prefecture by factor analysis.
The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005. Accordingly, the Japanese Government has been obligated to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 6% against 1990 levels. The government estimates that carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector account for 22% of all those in Japan; they have increased by 20.3% during 1990-2003 under increased motorization. To achieve reduction targets, the government released “Outline for Promotion Effects to Prevent Global Warming” in June 1998 and proposed urgent countermeasures against global warming. The outline was revised in March 2002, with more than 100 measures and policies proposed by ministries and agencies. The outline emphasized the establishment of an effective transportation system to achieve a quantified emission limitation of carbon dioxide emission increase by 17% for 2010 against the level in 1990. Modal-shift policies for freight transportation have remained a major concern, both for governments and private companies. This study develops a simulation model to examine the effects of modal-shift policies on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from automotive freight transportation in Japan. Binary logit models are estimated to identify the choice behavior of regional freight transportation by railway, shipping, and automobiles. Subsequently, gravity models are used to estimate freight transportation among prefectures in Japan. Finally, carbon dioxide emissions are calculated using the standard physical unit proposed by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. The model has been applied to a hypothetical case in which the average rate of modal-shift will be increased by 50% over the levels reported in 2000. Results of this study reveal that a marked reduction in carbon dioxide emissions can be expected for freight transportation between metropolitan and rural regions. Results also underscore the importance of effective utilization of railway transportation networks and marine transportation networks, which are well developed in metropolitan regions.
Evaluation is necessary in implementation of any project or policy, including those related to environmental problems. In our complex society, how to evaluate, how to fulfill accountability, and how to achieve agreement are problematic. In the environmental sciences, some methods have already been developed as decision aids. However, these methods cannot yet be used to adequately handle diversity, complexity, and uncertainty. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of using multi-criteria analysis for environmental evaluation and development of decision aids. In this study, we conducted a trial experiment of a garbage treatment system, and focused on differences in the judgments made by plural evaluators. This was an attempt to use a multi-criteria analysis as a decision aid when more than one person is involved. In recent years, some applications of multi-criteria analysis to environmental fields have been reported. Thus, it has become necessary to restructure the framework of research within the current state of the field. In this paper, first we outline the past research on the application of multi-criteria analysis to environmental problems in recent years, focusing on Europe. Next, we examined the results and the problems of past studies in order to discuss future studies.
Recently, plan making for community participation and requests to approach a consensus on building have risen in urban planning in Japan. At the same time, plan making for large areas intended for both urban and rural areas has become a new task with progress in consolidation of municipalities. Therefore diversification of the consciousness of residents about the plan and an increase in the number of stakeholders is expected through expansion of the plan area. This research attempts to clarify the consciousness of the residents of Niigata City about city planning. It also draws some policy implications for community participation and consensus building during the plan making processes.
In this paper, we introduce an agent called a secondary intermediate-goods producer who puts various types of intermediate-goods together into Romer's endogenous growth model, and studies the relationship between the market structure and growth rate. When the secondary intermediate-goods producers' market is competitive, their profit becomes zero. On the other hand, when the secondary intermediate-goods producers' market is monopolistic, they can make a profit. Subsequently, we show if a secondary intermediate-goods producer pays all of the profit for households, the growth rate is lower than under a competitive environment. However, if the government levies a part of the profit and invests in primary intermediate-goods or R&D, the growth rate can be higher than under a competitive environment depending on the investment rate. Finally, we compare the equilibrium rates of growth derived above the optimal rate.
Public involvement has become important in public project planning so it is necessary to consider local residents as players in the planning. However, if there are many local residents, it is difficult to divide them into player groups. In this study, the process of setting players among the local residents is proposed. This process is applied to the Yoshino River dam construction problem, and how this process can help in analyzing conflict is discussed. Furthermore, numerous small municipalities are recently being clustered and recomposed into larger municipalities in Japan. This decomposition influences not only the Yoshino River weir conflict but will also affect other public project plans in the future. With this in mind, the possibility of managing the Yoshino River conflict in the future is analyzed.
In this paper, we analyze the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) on the lives of consumers as well as the cause for differences in ICT usage between e-commerce and physical stores. One characteristic of ICT is the small marginal cost of distance and data space. It connects people at a uniform cost to and from any area around the world and makes it possible to use mega digital data at a minimal cost. The quantity of merchandise and information of shops are different between e-commerce and physical stores. Thus in this study, we analyzed the characteristics of e-commerce, user/reader in terms of personal and business, and the impact of information acquired from websites on e-commerce. For this purpose, we used a covariance structure analysis to determine the relationship of latent factors affecting the purchase of books from e-commerce and physical shops. As a result, we found that obtaining information about e-commerce shops does not increase the usage of e-commerce. Moreover, the latent factor of essential information that is obtained from choosing books increases the purchase of goods in the real stores. On the other hand, information about reputation increases purchase of goods through the e-commerce.
This research aims to consider to create added value with the aim of improving the competitiveness of agricultural and fishing industries for the regional revitalization of Hokkaido. The in this report refers to not simply developing products by using new freezing and refrigeration technologies. Specifically, such products are highly evaluated because higher levels of freshness are ensured compared with those of conventional products, and stable supplies, and thus stable retail prices, of high-quality products become possible yearound. Firmly establishing Hokkaido products becomes possible for not only fishery products but also agricultural and dairy products, fruit trees, upland crops, processed farm and fishery products and more. Due to the significantly heightened awareness of food safety and security among consumers in recent years, the establishment of a certification system for frozen distribution which employs new freezing technologies is deemed necessary. Establishing a certification system will reassure consumers as well as differentiate and improve the credibility of the regional distribution industry. It will be essential to validate the great freshness preservation effect through scientific and comprehensive distribution verification tests. It can be supposed that the new freezing and refrigeration systems will provide sufficient inherent production capabilities even if they require capital investment to enhance their economic efficiency, i.e. energy saving and running cost reduction. The new freezing system has combined a design that has capitalized on heat transfer engineering, a high-precision control system that can take outside air temperatures, for example, into account, and more. By doing so, the system has realized unprecedented energy saving efficiency, suppressed frost formation and put a super low temperature (−70°C) to practical use for general freezing systems. These points are also applicable to the rest of Hokkaido and thus the system is anticipated to be versatile enough to become instrumental not only in the fishing industry but also in the agricultural industry as well as for processed foods. Furthermore, this is not simply an issue that concerns Hokkaido alone, but also serves as a theme that will enable sustainable development of the nation's agricultural and fishing industries (including processed foods). We are committed to learning from “local branding of agricultural and fishery products,” a cutting-edge activity tackled outside Hokkaido, making effective use of finite resources through tie-ups with ice refrigeration and freshness preservation systems, not freezing and refrigeration at ultra low temperatures, and promoting sustainable systems with export competitiveness.
This paper analyzes the progress of delocalization of resource procurement and the response of companies to change in the seafood processing industry at Sakai-minato, Tottori Prefecture, based on available statistics and interviews with some of the local seafood processing companies. The analysis revealed two structural factors that have caused consecutive decline in the value-added of the seafood processing industry since the end of the 1990s. First, delocalization of resource procurement has progressed and volume of imported resources, especially the red snow crab processing, has increased due to a shortage in the local resources since the mid-1990s. However, the marine food processing industry must stop importing from foreign exporters and is forced to rely on only local resources for political reasons. This structural change in the resource supply has made the industry unstable with a fluctuation in raw material prices. Second, the industry itself has a structural problem. Most companies at Sakai-minato are only in charge of some parts of the production process such as the production of intermediate goods and most of them are in charge of low value-added products only.