Despite the fact that energy-saving technologies are considered profitable using standard net-present-value calculations, their adoption rates have been low, particularly in small firms. This study reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that explains this phenomenon, generally known as the energy-efficiency paradox. Issues such as hidden costs of investment and uncertainty, organisational barriers, and lack of information and capital appear to be important factors to explain the slow diffusion of energy-saving technologies in small firms.
Arsenic poisoning in groundwater is one of the worst natural catastrophes—the Bangladeshi people are facing in recent times. Tube well water (the principal source of drinking water) in many parts of Bangladesh is becoming contaminated with arsenic at levels much higher than is permissible (0.05 mg/liter). Arsenic is a carcinogen that leads to melanosis, keratosis, gangrene and cancer of the lungs, kidney, liver and other internal organs. A social survey concerned with arsenic was carried out in 2000 in Taranagar, a village very severely affected by arsenic contamination. Another survey was carried out in 2005 to determine the changes in this village after five years. In this paper the levels of arsenic poisoning in Taranagar in 2000 is compared with that in 2005. Arsenic poisoning situation had worsened in Taranagar—prevalence of patients in households increased from 70.2% to 90%. Five people had already died of arsenicosis. This situation raised awareness of the residents to some extent so that half of them in 2005 drank water from alternative water sources such as dug wells and ring wells. However, the situation was still far from satisfactory.
We examine the structure of the knowledge network to investigate the role of organizational learning in production activities. We develop a knowledge learning model in an industrial sector based in a competitive framework. The contribution of learning is modeled as a Cobb-Douglas production function with interactions. The welfare performance of the industrial sector is evaluated by aggregate profit. The dynamic processes of the knowledge network are analyzed with the interactive firms maximizing profits as a non-cooperative game. In the numerical simulation, the relationship between the time delay of interactive learning and the distance decay of knowledge spillovers in a space is explored. The optimal size of a learning region is shown.
Over the last two decades New Zealand has undergone fundamental economic restructuring, and phases of slow and rapid growth, which have resulted in some dramatic changes in the regional economies. This paper provides a detailed multi-period shift-share analysis over three intercensal periods between 1986 and 2001 on changes in regional employment outcomes at the level of 58 Labour Market Areas (LMAs) that have economically meaningful (commuting determined) boundaries. The contributions to employment outcomes of national trends, sectoral composition within regions, structural change, and local conditions (often referred to as the regional shift, competitive or differential effect), are calculated. An exploratory spatial data analysis of the industry-mix and regional shift effect is conducted and finds evidence of significantly positive spatial autocorrelation in the latter, but not in the former. Local indicators of spatial association help to identify regions that stand out in terms of being surrounded by similar regions, or by regions that are just the opposite, in terms of the regional shift effect. Some implications and avenues for further research are suggested.
In this paper, we propose the concept of watershed management is being adopted in river system management. That is, the river system is analyzed using the area surrounding it. But in the case of sea water, analysis is only done qualitatively. In this study, the sea water behavior in coastal sea zone is comprehensively discussed qualitatively in total and there are existing quantitative analyses of the shore current: high tide and low tide, and the surge of the tide in shallow sea area. The coastal sea zone is redefined and presented for quantitative argument of coastal sea zone use. Moreover, the seabed surface in the coastal sea zone is used as the factor in analyzing the seawater quantitatively and it will be done on the same manner inland water is being evaluated. The beneficial effect of the presented concept on this paper regarding the analysis of the coastal sea zone will be assessed on the Japan Sea Coast: Tsuruga-wan Bay and Wakasa-wan Bay, and Pacific Sea Coast: Kuju-kuri coast and Kamogawa-wan Bay. As a result, we clarified what could define coastal sea zone as concrete physical environment through some case study. It is an effective method for a future planning about coastal sea zone, and should be a base of discussion about that characteristic. And, we think that the measurement system of each surface area and the notice for coastal sea zone determination will be helpful to determine coastal sea zone and to grasp that characteristic. At the present time, we discuss the proposal for the definition of coastal sea zone that based on surface area and the method of both land and sea bottom surface area. At the same time, we indicate that it has much more expansion such as the proposal for the new administrative division and the evaluation method of basin area characteristic. Then, it is hoped that this result is put to practical use in various fields in future.
In this paper, we consider the dynamic investment behavior of an imperfect competitive firm under uncertainty and discuss the influence of this uncertainty on the macroeconomy. We assume a monopolistic firm that faces convex costs of adjustment, and an inverse demand function with a scale of economy subject to a stochastic fluctuation. The firm is assumed to maximize the expected present value of its net cash flow. The profit function becomes the strong concave function of the random variable for all times under certain conditions. This indicates that the increased uncertainty induces a decrease in investment because the expected marginal revenue product of capital is reduced. The imperfect competitive model can decide Tobin's q, similar to the competitive firm of Abel (1983). We also consider a comparative statics analysis of macroeconomy under uncertainty on the basis of Tobin (1969). In Tobin's framework, the q under uncertainty affects not only the investment demand but also the demand for money.
East Asia takes an important place in Japanese food industry investment in the world. Previous studies reported the agglomeration effects as well as the influence of market potential on location analysis. However, traditional market potential fails to explain the demand driven by export to nearby countries in the same region because it only takes the local or domestic market into consideration. In this paper, we extend Krugman's research  to include analysis of the location of competitors for adjusting the market potential based on the new economic geography (NEG). We also exam the Krugman market potential with data of bilateral trade from 1989 to 2003 by the methods for evaluating the Krugman market potential from the trade equation introduced by Head and Mayer . Afterwards, we begin with a logit estimation of country choice for Japanese food firms in East Asia, and attempt to analyze the determinants of the location choice by Japanese food industries. As a result, we found demand does matter for location choice and even plays a more important role than agglomeration effects, which have been the primary emphasis of past work on location choice.
This paper examines the fiscal viability of localities under serious conditions of population aging and the so-called Trinity Fiscal Reform in Japan with an econometric model. The model assesses the impacts of both declining demand and productive capacity due to change in age-group distributions in the population. The econometric model used to assess these impacts is characterized by an intrinsic combination of demand-oriented short-term mechanisms and supply-side medium-to long-term dynamics, where the balance of aggregate demand and supply determines the cyclic phase of the economy as represented by the overall utilization rate of the production capacity along the long-term path. The forecast and simulations from this model show that the above-mentioned Trinity Fiscal Reform generates persistent unfavorable impacts on the local governments even with a favorably situated economy like Aichi Prefecture. Unless proper measures are taken, the fiscal soundness of the local governments can not be maintained because the negative impacts of the reform are coupled with serious effects of depression from the aging population.
The macroeconomy of Cambodia has developed steadily since the end of the past civil war. However, the income gap between rural and urban areas is becoming wider and wider. In addition, poverty reduction is still an important issue for the country. In this paper, we estimate an input-output table and a social accounting matrix of Cambodia for the first time, and construct a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Based on the CGE model, we analyze the structure of the economy and discuss basic strategies for both macroeconomic growth and poverty reduction in Cambodia. Simulation results show that one cause for the income gap is a difference in growth rates between the service and fishery sectors. Therefore, protection of the environment to conserve fishery productivity is important for poverty reduction. The simulation also shows that export of agricultural and food products efficiently contributes to macroeconomic growth without an income conflict among income classes. As for financial management reforms, preferential treatment of light industries (food products and beverages, tobacco products, and textiles) is more efficient for pro-poor growth in Cambodia than price reduction of final demand goods.
This paper reports an analysis of the effects of financial assets on the rate of return in the office rental market of Seoul. Using the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Model, Impulse Response Analysis (IRA) and Variance Decomposition (VD), this paper reveals that interest rates and housing prices have negative effects on the profitability of the office rental market over the short-term due to competition, while the economic growth rate has a positive effect. Profitability tends to be sensitive to changes in the interest rates over the short term and the growth rate of GDP in the long run.
Real-world applications of a deposit-refund system are not widespread, although it has been recommended in various studies. This gap can be attributed to the negative impacts of this system on suppliers. However, this aspect has been ignored by previous studies so this paper considers the economic implications of policies mitigating these negative impacts. We consider two mitigation policies in an economy with a representative consumer, a representative supplier and the government. One policy allows the supplier to maintain unredeemed deposits, which represent the difference between deposits and refunds. Another policy pays the supplier a handling commission. The results can be summarized by two main points. First, when there is a negative externality from used products not being returned, the government should collect unredeemed deposits from the supplier and the percentage of unredeemed deposits the government should collect depends on the relative size of the negative externality compared to the deposit. Second, the payment of a handling commission has no effect on social welfare but paying this commission could decrease the burden on the supplier. JEL Classification: H23, Q58
This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and the environment based on the Green Solow model. We observed the resemblance of the shapes of the environmental Kuznets curve between per capita GDP and sulfur emissions for 17 OECD countries. Using cross-national panel data, the convergence of sulfur emissions per capita for 25 OECD countries was analyzed. Overall, a conditional convergence in sulfur emissions per capita for the 25 OECD countries was confirmed. The speed of convergence in the neighborhood of the balanced growth path was estimated to be 16.7 percent a year during the period from 1950 to 1973 and 7.3 percent a year during the period from 1974 to 2000.
The analyses described in this paper address an international mixed oligopoly model with multiple public firms to clarify equilibrium properties and derive policy implications. The results show a possible increase in social welfare relative to a single public firm and provide a rationale for active open-door policies to allow foreign firms to enter Chinese markets. Results also indicate that entry of a new public firm may increase the profits of public incumbents if the public firms are as cost-efficient as the private firms. It is surprising that adding a firm increases the profits of other firms in this Cournot-Nash Model.
The extant literature tells us that a seaport inspector who places a large (small) weight on biological invasion damage control relative to economic cost reduction will, ceteris paribus, inspect ships with containers more (less) stringently. Therefore, in this theoretical note we analyze the decision problem faced by a seaport inspector who places equal weight on the above two objectives. Specifically, we first present a stylized model of biological invasions. Next, we derive an expression for the long run expected net cost (LRENC) of inspections. Finally, we show that the optimal dependability and speed of inspections is the solution to this LRENC minimization problem.
The present paper is an attempt to construct an extended Harris-Todaro Model —— an equilibrium model that incorporates a stochastic fluctuation. Based on this stochastic dynamic Harris-Todaro Model, we examined how an increase in the demand fluctuation and the ratio of less productive producers effects migration and welfare. The results revealed that an increase in uncertainty of demand and a decrease in the ratio of less productive producers enhance both the growth rate and variance of the urban employees as well as welfare.
In this paper we analyse the effectiveness and consequences of introducing parking fees. It is argued that pricing measures are effective for combating inefficiencies in parking behaviour caused by distortions such as information problems and costs of parking congestion. However, given the structure of the marginal external costs involved, pricing measures are not attractive for addressing other negative externalities such as the negative effect of parked cars on the attractiveness of areas such as historical centres and residential areas. Therefore, a mixture of pricing and quantity regulation is needed. Furthermore, it is often stated that paid parking has negative effects on retailing. This issue was addressed by estimating two models of cross-sectional data from Dutch cities and panel data at the city-district level in Amsterdam, respectively. The first analysis suggests that aggregate parking capacity at the city level has a limited impact on the success of central shopping areas. In the second model we find that an introduction or increase of parking fees appears to have no negative consequences on the urban retail sector.
In this paper I studied about the various topics of the housing development “Otaru Boyo Park Town”, located at the south-east area of Otaru city, after more than thirty years from its completion. Among the various investigations done at the starting of the planning, I focused on, 1) “Sapporo district, as the nucleus management function” theory, described in the Hokkaido comprehensive development plan. (The outcome of the sharing of the residential function to Otaru city, from the mother city Sapporo, described in the Sapporo city comprehensive development plan.) 2) The outcome of plane merging of the existing urban district of Otaru city and the new town. The points concerning 1) is that there were no adjustments among the local governments, concerning the drawing up and evaluation of the comprehensive program. And the points concerning 2) is the lack of the development of transportation network connecting the neighboring districts. And for the solution of the points mentioned above, I have suggested the necessity of a system, that secures the participation of the local residents (“User Democracy”) in the stages of planning, execution and evaluation of the development. (Clear definition of right and obligation of the residents is needed.)
The present stage of economic development in China is already subjected to restrictions from the environment and resources, and a circular society is recognized as a new sustainable development strategy. Studies on the successful experiences and lessons learned from foreign law systems relating to a circular society are accumulating. The standpoint of “four factors”, namely law as a core factor, public as a basic factor, enterprise as the main body and technology as a decisive factor, for building a circular society, are discussed. Furthermore, concrete policy suggestions for establishing national laws to build a circular society are put forward based on the actual situation in China.