地域学研究
Online ISSN : 1880-6465
Print ISSN : 0287-6256
ISSN-L : 0287-6256
45 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
提言
論文
  • 平井 秀明
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 127-145
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      This paper presents an n-team sporting contest model in which each team consists of an owner and its manager. I demonstrated that sports teams can maximize a linear combination of profits and wins, while keeping the profit maximizing objective at the level of owners. In addition, I showed that revenue sharing arrangements by the league play an essential role in formulating the behavior of teams. If a league engages in revenue sharing (e.g. U.S. sports leagues), then team objectives are more profit oriented. On the other hand, if a league lacks a redistribution mechanism (e.g. European soccer leagues), then team objectives are more win oriented even if team owners are profit maximizers. These results are consistent with existing empirical observations of team objectives.
    JEL Classification:D72, L83, D43, C72
  • 福本 潤也
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 147-163
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Biodiversity offset is an ecological conservation activity to compensate for biodiversity losses caused by development in a measurable way. Almost all conservation activities require lands for conservation, and the costs of biodiversity offset depend on how easily these lands can be acquired.
     This paper focuses on the relationships among biodiversity offset, land use regulation and urban land use. We build an urban growth model based on Capozza and Helsely (1989). The model considers the following items:household utility of environmental amenities, development approval processes and biodiversity offset.
     We analyze three scenarios, namely the current Japanese system, the Japanese system with biodiversity offset, and the current German system. Our results show that 1) land use regulation is neutral to the speed of urban growth and urban land use, 2) once the biodiversity offset is introduced, the optimal land use regulation shouldapprove any development project, and 3) the cost of acquiring land for compensation is higher when the land use regulation is loose.
    JEL Classification:R14, Q15
  • 渋澤 博幸, 宮田 譲
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 165-179
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      After the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, all nuclear power stations in Japan have been closed. Japan’s shortage of minerals and energy is an important issue. Japan depends on imports for its primary energy needs. Recently, Japan is preparing to reopen nuclear power stations.
     In this study, we examined the economic effects of production activities in zones surrounding the Hamakoka nuclear power station in Shizuoka Prefecture before and after a natural disaster interrupts operations. A hypothetical extraction method was incorporated to the regional input-output framework. Using a regional input-output model and GIS employment data in Shizuoka Prefecture, backward and forward linkage impacts were calculated along the different sizes of the station’s zone. Density functions of the backward and forward linkage impacts were also derived.
     We assessed the economic implications on zones surrounding the nuclear power station. We found that a production stoppage along the zone generates large indirect negative effects on the regional economy. Our results suggest that disaster prevention and recovery policies should consider the industrial structure and economic implications in zones surrounding the nuclear power stations.
    JEL Classification:R11, R12, R15
  • Fadim YAVUZ, Tüzin BAYCAN
    原稿種別: 論文
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 181-199
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Watershed Management is a multi-dimensional, multi-institutional, collaborative, integrated and coordinated approach and has sustainable development characters. Therefore, watersheds should be considered at this scope and depth. Collaborative and Integrated Watershed Management (CIWM) is one major alternative that emerged as part of the trends to create more holistic and participatory approaches for natural resource management. The need for a broad spectrum of community experiences in management decisions is increasingly recognized. This study addresses Beyşehir Lake Basin (BLB), the largest freshwater lake in Turkey, to investigate the critical success factors in CIWM. What is the crucial problem of BLB ? What is the most appropriate watershed management strategy that enables ecological and socio-cultural sustainability of the basin ? How important is taking the most advantages of the basin’s Strengths and Opportunities or reinforcing the most Weaknesses and developing the best defense to the Threats ? To answer these questions from the point of experts, this paper offers a systematic approach and analytical methods with a combination of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and SWOT matrix;and evaluates the most appropriate watershed management strategy, as well as the technical/policy status of the BLB’s management.
    JEL Classifications:C390, Q01, Q25, Q56
研究ノート
  • 枝川 眞弓
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 201-212
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      We should take into account various factors when deciding the level to which social capital is to be strengthened—including declining population, aging of society, falling birthrates and the need to rebuild the nation’s state coffers. On an individual project level, whether or not each project is necessary should be decided by analyzing its cost-benefit ratio. On a regional or national level, policymakers should recognize the reality concerning the stock of social capital. Based on the recognition, they should study what extent the current stock should be raised in the future.
      In this paper, I tried to grasp the situation of social capital (categorized into four types) based on Japan’s Social Capital 2012, published by the Cabinet Office. Using data pooled between 1990 and 2009, region-by-region and industry-by-industry productivity effects of social capital stock were estimated. Next, a simulation based on the Real Business Cycle (RBC) model was conducted, using a production function that reflects the productivity effects of social capital stock. The simulation was designed to confirm the possible percentage change in each variable when the ratio of government spending (public investment) against gross domestic product (GDP) rises by 1%.
      What was found in the region-by-region and industry-by-industry survey is that regarding mining, manufacturing and service industries operating in urban areas, productivity effects were high at living-support infrastructure facilities (publicly-owned houses for rent, water-supply services, waste-disposal facilities, city parks and education facilities) and land-protection facilities (flood control, soil conservation and coastal facilities). The simulation using the RBC model led to a finding that when productivity effects of social capital exist, consumption will possibly rise, aided by positive income effects.
    JEL Classification:E22, E23, H54
  • 白柳 博章, 北村 幸定
    原稿種別: 研究ノート
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 213-224
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      Recent low birthrates and an aging population have progressively brought the accumulation of enormous social capital infrastructures to a crisis. To secure a comfortable civic life, we must advance arguments to minimize the expenses for the renewal and maintenance of the infrastructure while maintaining improvements of the service level and providing accountability to citizens.
      However, quantitative verification is still lacking and it is difficult to plan and perform the renewal and maintenance of small enterprises such as sewerage systems. That is why it is important that we scientifically show the optimum renewal and maintenance planning from both short-term and long-term viewpoints. Then, we will be able to practice quantitative asset management of institutions as a business entity.
      This study aimed to determine the state of sewerage pipe lines from several perspectives and incomes or expenses as the business entity in Nagaokakyo City (Kyoto Prefecture), and showed a scheme for renewal and maintenance planning of the sewer institution.
      First, we determined the present conditions of the sewer business in terms of running costs, user charges, time and the types of sewerage pipe lines. Therefore, there is a need to minimize total social costs (renewal costs, repair costs, amount of damage, and maintenance costs for checking and cleaning) to constantly maintain the solid pipe line network as a business entity on condition that people use an institution comfortably and continually as a service level.
      Second, we developed a theory for possible trouble in sewerage pipes as a basic factor for counting social benefits and costs, formulated each cost used to calculate the total social costs, and constructed a model to decide the time for update and a method that minimizes the total social costs within the budget limitations.
      Finally, we make suggestions about the priorities for renewal and maintenance planning, and arranged the various problems to decide the priority (such as setting various parameters for the trouble rate and amount of damage per user). To solve these problems, area cross-sectional and chronological approaches based on the sewer database and questionnaires from users are needed.
    JEL Classification:C54, H39, O21, P25, R11
事例研究
  • 浅見 均, 小美野 智紀
    原稿種別: 事例研究
    2015 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 225-237
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/02/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
      Railways, including local railways, serve as a form of public transport, and public transport is a constituent element of social infrastructure that helps support the lives of passengers. While it can be said that railways exist for the sake of their passengers, the converse is not true. Sound railway management cannot be readily sustained without a considerable number of passengers. With Japan now facing a downturn in total population, ensuring a sufficient pool of potential passengers within station territories has become a significant business challenge for local railway lines in particular. Ensuring sufficient populations within station territories is a nearly impossible task for a railway business, necessitating some form of outside assistance. Following the abolition of supply-demand adjustment regulations in 2000, recent years have seen an increasing number of local railway companies undergo transfers of management, making case studies on management revitalization of local railway companies of substantial social importance.
      This case study focuses on management revitalization of the Takamatsu-Kotohira Electric Railroad (Kotoden) in the Takamatsu urban area by employing the following analysis techniques:
     1) Factor analysis of Kotoden’s successful management revitalization and comparisons with the findings of case studies on the Kishigawa Line
     2) Detailed GIS (Geographic Information System) based analysis of changes in the populations of station territories along Kotoden lines
     3) Analysis of the relationships between Kotoden’s successful management revitalization and urban planning
     4) Comparative analysis with other urban areas
      The authors are convinced that the findings of this case study offer valuable information on successful management revitalization of local railways, given that success in this instance can be attributed to the fact that Kotoden’s management revitalization was authorized in recognition of its value as a public transport provider in the context of urban planning for the Takamatsu urban area.
       This case study was also able to show the utility and importance of analyzing population changes in station territories using GIS (100 m mesh population data).
      This research further demonstrated that tripartite management by local governments along the Kotoden railway lines, residents living along these lines (passengers), and the railway company itself are all major factors in the success of the management revitalization undertaken by this local railway company.
    JEL Classifications:O18, R14, R42
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