Against a background where the fixation of a population is indispensable for making a regional economy virtuous and a community active, in this paper, we clarify the differences among the structures of the settlement consciousness of residents in different regions and life stages. The data used for the study were a combination of urban facility data extracted from GIS data, housing data from the viewpoint of service science, and data from a citizen consciousness survey in Chofu City on living attributes of the people, the surrounding environment, values, residence satisfaction, etc. We clarified differences among the structures of settlement consciousness in each of five regions in Chofu City by analyzing the relationships between settlement consciousness and the variables of the combined data, using hierarchical generalized linear mixture models. We also clarified the differences among the structures of settlement consciousness in three life stages of citizens, based on age.
In this study, we developed a tool for the estimation of the economic effects of wind power generation on municipalities where input-output analysis cannot be applied. This tool is based on the data of the value chains of wind power generation. Therefore, we investigated the money flows between wind power generation and the related enterprises that are assigned such tasks. The economic effects refer to the number of employees, disposable income, and tax revenue. Moreover, we examined the economic effects of wind power generation on Suzu-city in each case of location of the related enterprises. The related enterprises involve machinery manufacture, planning and construction, operation and maintenance （O&M）, and financial management. The results showed that the organizer of wind power generation and O&M mostly contributes to the increase in disposable income and tax revenue. Thus, it is important that the enterprises play the role of organizer as well as O&M locate in Suzu-city to increase the disposable income and tax revenue. Further, to increase the number of employees, it is important that these enterprises play the role of O&M as well as design and construction locate in Suzu-city.
Tangible folk cultural assets are tools in people’s lives that are used for daily life and events of the community, such as traditional foods, clothing and shelter, production and professions for example farming and fishing, and annual events, as well as an important cultural heritage that is essential for understanding changes in the livelihoods of the Japanese people.
Surveys were conducted on tangible folk cultural assets in the Kanto Zone （2010）, the three prefectures of the Tokai Zone （2012）, the five prefectures of the Setouchi Zone （2013）, and the Kyushu Zone （2014）.
In the Japanese Sea Rim Zone, many of the tangible folk cultural assets that were continuously produced from the Meiji era until before the war were used across the three eras of Meiji, Taisho and Showa, regardless of their uses. The same trend was observed in the Kanto, Tokai and Setouchi Zones. However, unlike the Kanto and Tokai Zones, there were tangible folk cultural assets for the purpose of “production and professions” and “religion” produced before Meiji in the Edo era, and used until after the war. Around half of such tangible folk cultural assets were for religious purposes and were used until the late high economic growth period, when their use largely ended. In the Kyushu Zone, tangible folk cultural assets produced in and before the Edo period were better preserved than the other three zones. Some assets that were made in the mid-1960s to mid-1970s have been used until today. Tangible folk cultural assets represent the characteristics of a region, so they are associated with regional identity and are essential for regional development.
Laws related to regional creation have been established alongside the issues of endangered local governments, and cultural assets as regional tourist attractions gathering attention especially related to the tourism industry. In the future, regional revitalization measures that make use of the uniqueness of nature, traditional culture, and the manifestations of creativity by people in that region will become even more important for regional regeneration with unique values, including cultural assets, as the keys to regeneration.
This paper aims to survey the performance of organizations that support social enterprises and examine how they find their supporters. Social enterprises work to solve various challenges and social problems, such as issues related to the environment, social well-being, inequality in educational opportunities and disparity in income distributions.
Prompt action must be taken to overcome these problems, but the reasons for financial restrictions cannot be satisfactorily resolved by the government. Hence social enterprises have recently stepped in and are changing the boundaries to cope with various social problems. These efforts can be regarded as new models of modern nonprofit organizations to accomplish various targets. Therefore, they need supporters, such as volunteers, contributions, and investments.
Many start-up social enterprises struggle to obtain resources such as manpower, contributions and grants. The success stories of these social enterprises can impact various fields, but they must struggle with tough experiences to obtain business know-how. Especially infrastructure organizations can powerfully support activities to support other members.
We focus on three Non-Profit Organizations;Japan NPO Center, Osaka NPO Center and Community Support Center KOBE. These centers were established in 1996 after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995 and certified as specified nonprofit corporations by the Act on Promotion of Specified Non-profit Activities in 1998. Their reports show us suggestions for various solutions to social problems.
Support organizations can be considered for fund-raising from non-profit organizations such as NPO banks and community banks, and commercial organizations such as crowdfunding, Shinkin Banks, etc.
The attractiveness of a region can be measured by the social welfare functions within the framework of spatial economics. Long-run sustainable regional growth requires the attractiveness of a region to keep the centripetal forces of the local population and economic activity. This paper focuses on regions where spatial exclusion, caused by the organization of a transportation network, has already been observed. While the relevant studies on this subject separately investigate the economic behavior of households, firms, and the local government, this paper attempts to integrate them into a single framework as a unit of the regional economic agent to reveal the mutual relationships. The integrated framework applies the notion of the spatial social welfare function, including accessibility or the concepts of supply and the market areas of goods and services that should vary with the order of urban hierarchy. This paper also studies alternative spatial formation as a widely cooperative regional affiliation that can be useful for countries where the total national population and the extent of economic growth are constantly diminishing. Finally, the analysis investigates how to coordinate widely cooperative regional affiliations, and explores possibilities for adapting this specific framework for regional economic development.
This paper considers the location choices for spatial oligopoly markets. According to Sawai and Kunizaki ［10］, the supermarket stores in rural areas appear to act as Cournot-Nash competitors. However, supermarket stores located in urban areas may not behave as such competitors. For example, the stores in urban areas operate large size stores. Large store size affects the behavior of market competition and location choice in the urban areas. This characteristic may affect the behavior of market competition and location choice in the urban area.
We examined the attitude of market competition among the stores in the urban area. For this purpose, we used a conjectural variation model which extends Bresnahan and Reissl, ［3］ ［4］. From this theoretical model, we derived indexes that represent the degree of competitiveness and the entry thresholds of the stores. Next, we use an ordered-probit model to estimate the entry thresholds for each store. As a result, first, we found that large scale operation of supermarket stores causes declining competitiveness among the stores. Second, the abolition of regulations on large scale stores especially enhances cooperative behavior related to the location and operation size among stores.
These results suggest that each store decides the location to avoid competition with rival stores, and the market in the urban area becomes more collusive. This means that the markup rate of each store increases, and collusive behavior makes the consumer surplus worse.
There is a growing demand for infrastructure projects in the world. According to the McKinsey Global Institute （MGI）, it is estimated that $49 trillion in infrastructure investments will be required globally between 2016 and 2030, which is 1.5 times larger than the historical infrastructure spending between 2000 and 2015. To respond to this demand, governments around the world increasingly use private sector involvement to provide public infrastructures through Public Private Partnerships （PPPs）.
This article intends to review the PPP literature and extract the theoretical reason for the use of PPPs in the provision of infrastructures. This literature review found that the potential efficiency gain is centered as the reason for using PPPs over public provision. It also found that the PPP literature emphasizes the importance of （i） optimum transfer of risk that generates the proper incentives for the private sector to efficiently supply infrastructure services and （ii） a distinction between endogenous and exogenous risks when deciding the allocation of risk between the public sector and the private sector.
Based on the review, some past PPPs in ASEAN countries are summarized in light of the efficiency gain and optimum risk allocation. Certain risks that the private sector can neither control nor diversify were excessively transferred to the private sector involved in these PPPs, which leaves room for further improvement in the efficiency of PPPs. This implies that further optimization of risk allocation should be pursed in ASEAN PPPs, so the efficiency gain, which is the principal reason for the use of PPPs, can be maximized.
This paper focuses on the problems of foreign company acquisition of forests in the water source areas （WSAs） of Japan.
We conducted a verification of the hypothesis “Will clarification of land registers and awakening interest in the promotion of collaboration between government and forestry workers lead to the maintenance of stable WSAs ?” Specifically, individual interest in the hypothetical policy scenario for clarification of land registers and strengthening of the connection between government and forestry workers was used as a proxy for the willingness to pay （WTP） policy implementation costs. Moreover, this standard was evaluated through a comparison among regions, taking forest acquisition as the basis.
Land ownership of the many forest lands in Japan, including WSAs, is unclear, and the reality is that the work of ascertaining this requires the understanding and cooperation of not only prefectures but also municipalities and local forestry workers.
Based on this, we constructed two scenarios. The first scenario was the implementation of “a policy to clarify the unclear forest ownership structure for the conservation of WSAs.” The second scenario consisted of the incorporation of the concept of co-management in forest management and implementation of “a policy related to business development to promote collaboration between government and local forestry workers.” These two scenarios were not meant to function as direct prevention of forest acquisition but rather as a contribution to sound maintenance and management of forest areas extending from the WSAs to mountains near villages. Further, as a form of resident participation in the management of WSAs, we measured and compared the WTP for the costs required for implementing the policy.
Data collection was conducted from 2016 to 2017 through internet research. The number of samples of residents in regions with a history of forest acquisition was 1,513, and in regions with no such history, the number was 2,209. The WTP was estimated using the Contingent Valuation Method （CVM）, with initial costs of 300 （yen/year per household）, 1,000 （yen/year per household）, 3,000 （yen/year or household）, and 10,000 （yen/year or household）. A comparison of the WTP amounts for the two scenarios showed that the WTP of residents of regions with a history of forest acquisition for scenario one was 876 yen, and for regions with no history, the WTP was 776 yen. Similarly, the WTP amounts for residents of regions with a history of forest acquisition for scenario two was 1,851 yen, and for regions with no history, WTP was 1,371 yen. With respect to factors that influenced the WTP, the influence of regional differences was partial and differences in the recognition of individuals had a stronger influence on the WTP than a comparison of regional differences and differences in the recognition of individuals. This study suggests that the estimated WTP is extremely beneficial for the system design of forest policies implemented at the national level or the municipal level.