The purpose of this study is to measure the social and economic effects on the respective region in the case that if large scale industry will be allocated in the depopulated region where has migrations continuously. Getting along the allocation of large-scale industy, the secondary industrial activities will be changed. The fundamental way of this study is to measure the effects which are brought by these changes to the population structure, and the primary and tertiary industrial activities. The changes of the secondary industrial activities are classified by the following five types. 1) the industry newly allocated in the reclaimed land (large-scale industry) 2) the allocated industries correlated to the industry newly allocated in the reclaimed land 3) the existing industries correlated to the industry newly allocated in the reclaimed land 4) the progressive industries not correlated to the industry newly allocated in the reclaimed land 5) the depressive industries not correlated to the industry newly allocated in the reclaimed land These changes of the secondary industries produce good results to employment oppotunities and to rise income level, and prevent the migration in the respective region. They also bring to the primary industries the shifting of labor forces and the changes reserved land to residential, industrial and commercial uses, and result in rising the productivity of the primary industrial land. Moreover, as for the tertiary industries, they bring the increase of consumption and the expansion of marketing area with rise of income level. The theoretical model building is made depending on these fundamental way mentioned above. But, from the limitation of data, the effects are forced to measure by a pilot model, and it is actually applied to the depopulated region of Eastern Ky_??_sh_??_. As the result of measurement, it is found that the allocation of largescale industry brings great immense of induced and developed effects. On the other hand, the environmental pollution and destruction are hard to include in the model and further studies about these problems are pointed out to be needed.
After the oil crises, economic and social development has been suppressed. But, Japanese population continues to increase from 110, 949, 000 in 1975 to 138, 000, 000 in 2025 and almost all this increased population tends to concentrate in large cities. Another problem in Japan is that there is a possibility to occur large earthquake in megalopolis, such as, Tokyo and that possibility was proved by the study of geophysics. It is estimated that the damages amount aboutr ¥52 trillion at the price level of and national wealth in 1974. Only one method to prevent this great damage of earthquake is to suppress increase in population in Tokyo, but it causes another problem in other cities. This paper shows these problems using some statistical materials and shows some means of solving.
This paper is concerned with the decision-making process of two level -central and local government- system from the point of view of recognizing the autonomy of local government. Suppose a plan extended over a region consists of some local governments. The object of this plan is to improve the residencial environment in this region. Further, it is assumed that each government has political and fiscal restrictions and that the total of the grant allocated to this region is previously decided by a central government. The problem is how each local government designs an autonomous plan, considering the consciousness of the residents, and how the central government, as coordinator, harmonize these plans, allocating the grant so as to make a plan efficiently as possible. We first set up a general regional model in a Linear Programming framework. Secondly, using a method of a decomposion principle, we show that this method itself is a decision-making process, in which informations are exchanged between two levels. Finally, we present a sewerage planning model as an example, and show that aforementioned decision-making process works efficiently in this example.
This paper considers alternative approaches to an analysis for the interregional commodity flows. One is based upon the traditional methods, which includes a gravity model, and/or a linear programming model. The other is an information theoretic approach, which is simply called an “entropy model.” An entropy model can be classified into the following three categories. The first one is the Wilson-type model. The second one is the method which uses a channel capacity. The last one makes use of an information inaccuracy. From a methodological point of view, the features of each method are clarified and a comparison for efficacy is made out theoretically.
This study is approach to new finantial problem for regional Development. Ordinarily, financing to public investment are support by public finance. When this financing do not avail, local governmental sector will issue to local public bond. This bond selles to private financial market in this region. But, this bond is less liquidity bond we call “Enko-sai” on this bond in Japan. Then, this bond makes disturbance on private rigional financial market. This disturbance more makes to other private economic activity in this region. For adjustment on this economic problem, we must have two ways of control. There is control to public investment and makes to this finanical bond controlled new policy.
In general, Japan Standard Industrial Classification is used to discuss business sorts structure of the industries. The writer has made out the classification in the industries in relation to the industrial location factor which is based on the function of the cities, particularly the economic and social integration, and analized regional structure of Japanese industries with the classification. The structure of the classification is as follows: -The industries relate to city integration- 1. Industries in metropolitan area. 2. Industries in expanding area of metropolis 3. Industries in local center cities. 4. Local industries. -The industries which are related by other factors- 5. Local speciality industries. 6. Local material dependent type industries. 7. Relative equipment industires. 8. Basic equipment industries. 9. Specified location type industries. This report is to analzye the characteristics of Hokkaido's industries by means of the classification and to study the direction of their expansion. The main part of Hokkaido's industries is occupied by local type industries, particularly the local material dependent type industries are showing large scale operation, high labour productivity and high capital reservation rate. On the other hand, urban type industries are showing new development in Sapporo and its expanding area though their scale of operation is not yet large. The direction of expansion of Hokkaido's industries is specified as follows depending on the said characteristics: (1) To grow and introduce urban type industries which will be the main part of Japanese industrial development acting as vanguard. And to grow technical integration and integration of education and culture that are necessary for the industries in the center belt area surrounding Sapporo. (2) The local type industries which occupy the main part of Hokkaido's industries should be actively grown as leading business line. Although these industries are tend to be limited by local materials and local demand, these should be developed in entire area of Hokkaido taking the said matter into consideration. (3) Line of equipment industries are expected to expand in the area to be projected in eastern part of Tomakomai. The space left in Hokkaido shall be valuable resource in future in view of entire Japan.
In recent years, the large-scale industrial parks were planned out for national land planning. For the completion of these projects, it would be necessary to measure the impact arising from the industrial locations. Especially, we must measure the fundamental data, the opportunity of employment by the detail sectors arising from the industrial locations. In this paper, we try to consider the method of measurement of the opportunity of employment and measure the impact arising from the industrial locations in the Tomakomai Tobu Industrial Park by the application of this method. And we estimate to allocate the opportunity of Employment into 22 regions in Hokkaido and consider the changes of the distribution percentages.
1. Past and Present of International and Domestic Air Transport 1-1. Japanese Air Transport The Japanese air transport industry has made a conspicuous progress in three decades after the end of the Second World War. The number of air passengers who left and reached Japan in 1954 was 110, 000 persons. In 1973, or two decades later, the number grew 68-fold to 7, 430, 000 persons. The number of air passengers for 1973 accounted for 98% of all passengers to and from Japan, including surface passengers, for the same year. The number of air passengers within Japan also increased from 336, 000 persons in 1955 to 2, 350, 000 persons in 1973, representing a 70-fold growth in 18 years. 1-2. Hokkaido and Air Transport Air transport in Hokkaido has developed as major part of Japanese domestic air service. The number of air passengers who travelled between Hokkaido and Honshu (the main island of the Japanese archipelago) and within Hokkaido was 2, 180, 000 persons in 1969, and jumped to 4, 540, 000 persons in 1973, scoring a gain of just over 2-fold in five years. Of the total travellers between Hokkaido and Honshu in 1965, those who travelled by Japanese National Railways service accounted for 84% and those who travelled by air service 16%. In 1973, however, these ratios changed to 54% for JNR service and 46% for air service. As this shows, air service is now showing gradual predominance over rail traffic in longdistance transport. 2. Future of Air Transport Centering around Hokkaido 2-1-1. Future of Domestic Air Transport Despite the existence of some unfavorable factors, the long-term prospects for Japanese domestic air service are encouraging. The number of those who travel by air in Japan is estimated to reach 66 million to 73 million persons by 1985. 2-1-2. Domestic Air Passengers Centering around Hokkaido The number of air passengers centering around Hokkaido, a pivot of longdistance air service, will continue increasing. The principal contributing factors include (1) rapid progress of urbanization in local areas, (2) a rise in people's income level and a resultant increase in the value of time, and (3) expansion of jet service network. 2-2. Future of International Air Transport 2-1-2. International Air Transport in 1980's A further increase is foreseeable in the number of international air passengers in the 1980's. Those who leave and reach Japan by air will exceed the level of 40 million persons, or nearly six times as many as at present. Of them, the Japanese passengers will account for about 25 million, or about 60% of the total. 2-2-2. International Air Passengers Centering around Hokkaido The areas of movement of international air passengers to and from Japan were mostly confined to Tokyo, Osaka, and places in their vicinity a decade ago. In the 1980's, however, the number of international air passengers to and from the Hokkaido Region is expected to reach about one million persons. 3. Position of Hokkaido in Air Transport 3-1. Use of Airports in Hokkaido in 1985 By 1985, the number of domestic air passengers using Chitose Airport, Sapporo, will reach 12, 800, 000 persons, just over three times as many as in 1973. Chitose Airport will thus rank fourth in Japan, following Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka, in terms of the number of passengers it handles. By 1985, Kushiro Airport will handle, 1, 120, 000 passengers, compared with the 110, 000 passengers in 1973; Obihiro Airport will handle 640, 000 passengers, against the 80, 000 passengers; and Hakodate Airport will handle 1, 290, 000 passengers, against the 480, 000 passengers. 3-2. Improvement of Airport Facilities The program of improving airport facilities in Hokkaido will need to be drawn up for the moment on the basis of the movement of domestic air passengers. 3-3.