Despite the fact a rapid regional development often gives negative impacts upon regional residents and their governments, i.e. the decrease of the level of welfare and the imbalance of regional finance in a region during the development process, little attention has been paid to explaining these inverse effects of the development theoretically and to finding measures to minimize them. Most of research efforts which deal with dynamic aspects of regional developments are concentrated on investigating resource allocation among regions and/or sectors aiming at maximization of welfare at the end of the planning period. Since these studies neither include regional finance mechanizm nor describe the changes of welfare during the development process, they contribute little to explain the issue theoretically. Econometric types of analyses on regional development, on the other hand into account regional public finance. However they depict dynamic changes of regional finance and welfare rigorously, they fail to discuss causes of the inverse effects during the development process theoretically. Simply because they handle too many variables to analyze their relationships. With simple specification of regional development, this paper gives an explanation of the issue assuming that the cause of inverse effects in the development process is that the speed of regional development exceeds the adaptation capability of economic-financial systems in a region. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to explain the inverse effects of development during the process and to present a desirable regional development process from the standpoints of residents and governments in a region with the special emphasis on regional development speed. First, in section I, the regional development speed is defined as a key variable of this research. Then, in II, the regional financial economic model which describes the causal relationships between the public capital and their current outlays in a financial system is formulated. The study proposes the criteria from the viewpoints of regional agents and collectivities which are called “regional development speed criteria” in short R. D. S. C., they are, regional welfare and finance should not decrease nor imbalance with respect to time t during the development process (in section III). In section IV, conventional resource allocation for maximizing welfare in an autonomusly developing region is assessed by the RDS criteria. The purpose of section V is to analyze the feasible regions of regional development speed which satisfy the RDSC in the context of a nonautonomus or dependent to central gvernment (i.e. exogenous governmental investments and resource allocations are done without considering the present level of surplus reverue in a region) and in autonomus or independent development process.
This paper presents a new model defining the social welfare in gross national product and its application for national land planning and energy conservation program. The new model is shown as follows: where P: Production, T: Transportation, W: Personal consumption & Social welfare K: Investment & Consumption in the private sector S: Investment in the public sector The meaning of this model is explained in the next table. Then it would be possible to define that an optimum national land planning needs less investment for the process of production and transportation and more distribution of gross national product for personal consumption & social welfare in the new model defined above. Next I present a modified model to evaluate energy conservation program. It is shown as follows: In this modified model, row E indicates energy consumption in each processes. In general, energy conservation program are classified into three stages. First stage is a mere prevention of energy waste. Second stage is an energy conservation method that accompanies with some technological improvement or reaction in the society. Third stage is a development of new energy. It is also possible to evaluate the effect of these program and policies, using the modified model defined above.
The purpose of this paper is to build the industrial complexes for machinery manufacturing and identify their location orientation with the final aim of selectiong optimal industrial complexes for regional development. Firstly, the attraction model, which is introduced by L. H. Klaassen, is applied to the data of machinery manufacturing industry in Japan to analyse an interindustry relationship and its location. The attraction model establishes a relationship between the gross output of an industry and its demand/supply. The coefficients of this relationship specify the location tendency of an indutry, which is market-oriented, footloose or supply-oriented. Secondly, the industrial complexes of machinery manufacturing, one of which is consisted of a core sector of industry and plural component sectors, are built up and classified into six categories from the view point of productive and location factors.
This paper is a study of financing to regional development. Recently, decreasing of rate of economic growth, finanical source on public sector tighten too. Then, money for investment on public sector will expects supply from non-public sector, this is private sector. But, economic principle do not operate on same principle between public sector and private sector. When money for investment on public sector will supply from private sector or private financial market, financial conflict happen in private financial market in sometime. If availablity of regional Bank is so small, These finance do not chieve, so that investment for regional development do not achieve and so program for regional development do not achieve. Consquently finance to investment for regional development from regional private financial market is very strategic factor. This fact is often happening on regional economy. So we make a proposal to new policy making for regional finanical control.
Water resources allocation has been planned, depending on a regional activity plan whose object was to attain only the efficiency of a regional economy. The need of environmental impact assessement on this plan is examined. A model is given for a water resources allocation planning which extends over a region consisted of a number of districts, whereas the desired value of water quality in a coastal sea is pre-fixed. In order that the desired value may be considered as a constraint in the model, a state of current in a coastal sea is described by a simulation technique, based on the Navie-Stokes equation in the field of hydraulics. And using the state of current it is shown that a Load Impact Matrix is made by a diffusion equation. The flow chart for making the load impact matrix is depicted in Figure. A water resources allocation model is first set up, and it is shown that the solution method is a decision making process between the plan of each district and a regional plan which satisfys the desired value of water quality in the coastal sea. It is shown that the model can be applied efficiently in water resources allocation problems in a numerical example.
One of purposes of this study is to show a mechanism of flood damages which can be expressed by the combinations of factors with natural circumstances, social circumstances and both contactual circumstances. Further more the position of flood damages is established with three axises which are the time, the space and the subject axis. Another purpose is to build up the System Dynamics Model evaluting the interaction between the investment for flood control and the flood damages reduced by the investment. By using this model the dynamic effectiveness of the flood control projects and the influences of the expanding land use can be measured. Now there is two types of the flooding as follows: 1) The overflow caused by abnormal precipitation or snowmelt and in result blinging on abnormal stream of the river. 2) The storm drainage caused by runoff from small urban areas. In order to reduce the damages with the overflow some structural measures, for example, reservoirs, channel inprovements, levees, bypasses and so on, is constructed with the investment. And pumping plants and gates are considered to reduse the damages with the storm drainage. In this analysis we use levees and pumping plants which are most ordinary in all the methods.
In this paper, a biref survey of multi-objective optimization techniques for environmental assessement in the region is presented. First, properties of regional environmental systems are exmained, and evaluation criteria for methodologies, which shall be applied to the environmental systems analysis, are presented. After reviewing a short history of methodologies, which have been utilized in water resources systems, a special stress is placed on utility approaches to evaluation of the environmental systems. Among them, the SWT method and the MUF method are discussed. For making up for some shortages of both methods, an alternative method -the NLM method- is proposed, and distinct characteristics of this method are examined. Examples of empirical studies using these methods in Japan are referred. In short, in determination of preferred solutions, the role of the decision maker is regarded as important even though the Arrow's Possibility Theorem has been well-known.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the Japanese prefectures by the public investment patterns. At first, using the ratio of the public investment items, we try to classify the prefectures into some groups by the cluster analysis. These investment items used here are , Road,  Street,  Harbor Facilities, .... Industrial Water Supply,  Others. As the result of the analysis, the Japanese prefectures are classified into the following three groups.  Advanced group-This group includes the most urbanized areas in Japan, for exmaple, TOKYO, OSAKA and these areas are invested especially on the following items, that is, Street, Housing, Urban Planning, Sewerage.  Backward group-Non-urbanized areas, fore example, AOMORI, IWATE belong to this group and the public investment of this group is concentrated on Conservation of National Land, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing.  Intermediate group-This group has the areas characterized by the industrial development, for example, OKAYAMA, OITA and has the investment emphasized on the basic facilities of products, that is, Harbor Facilities, Industrial Water Supply.
This paper reexamines Simon's model which formulates the stochastic processes yielding the Yule city size distribution. First, in conjunction with the empirical fact that the form of city size distributions is stable over time, the concept of the “steady state” stated by Simon is clarified. Second, Simon's assumptions and the “steady state” are shown to be contradictory. Third, however, it is shown that this contradiction is disolved in the context of the “asymptotic steady state”. Based on these reconsiderations, fourth, Simon's model is reformulated. Last, in the context of this reformulated Simon's model, the “steady state” is reconsidered.
The purpose of this study is to explain the mechanism of the variation of regional populations by a model. Economic factors which affect the variation of regional population were chosen as the variables of the model. The structural form of the model consists of four equations. One of the four equations was derived from a “utility function of migration” proposed in this paper. The reduced form of this model was applied to the data of Japan for two periods of time 1960-1965 and 1965-1970. When the model applied to the data, four types of boundary lines of regions were used. The reduced form was successfully applied to all the data for the two periods of time, obtained from the four types of boundary lines of regions.
The remarkable aspect of urbanization in Japan is the rapid change of landuse, which is due to enlarging of urbanized area and renewing of city. The development of such change is almost never planned and is not uniformly and continuously carried out. It takes place in result that urban sprawl and residential, industrial, commerical and agricultural land are mixing everywhere. Most of Planners feel such phenomenon unpleasant and they have performed many plans to sweep out the disorder of land-use. Is it true that mixing of land-use is similar to disorder of land-use every time? The primary aim of this paper is to clarify the order in the mixing landuse. Secondary, it is designed to construct the simulation model for mixing landuse. Chi square tests are applied to show the mixing structures of land-use in Sapporo, Akita and Kashima at the first step. Some traits of mixing structures are clarified as the result of these tests. Consequently, it becomes sure that mixing is not similar to disorder. The spatial process, which results in mixing structures of land-use, is distinguished to three ingredients (Diffusion, Combination and Transition). Then, each of ingredients are formulized and synthesized as followings; Pij=probability of increase of ‘j’ th type of land-use in ‘i’ th compartment. lij=number of ‘j’ th type of land-use in ‘i’ th compartment. dij=probability of diffusion from ‘i’ th compartment to ‘j’ th compartment. cij=probability of combination of ‘i’ th type and ‘j’ th type of land-use. tij=probability of transition from ‘i’ th type to ‘j’ th type of land-use. m=number of compartments in observed area. n=number of categories of land-use. α, β, γ=parameter. Finally, the sum of increase by one step of change is distributed in proporition to Pij by means of Monte-Carlo simulation.
Since the second world war Japan has made tremendous economic progress, which has caused a great change in it's regional structure. In this paper the author have made a theoretical approach to land use and land price through analysis of the regional structure of Japan. This analysis attempts to a) to explain the change of land use in connection with land price. b) to explain the influence of traffic facilities and stock and flow of informations on change of land use. First the made a potential analysis by region. He calculated the potential power of land which might change the present pattern of land use or might be changed by another. By the potential power of land is meant net profit from the use of the land. For banks I calculated gross profit on deposits. Three percentt of deposits are considered to be gross profit by the difference in the rate of interest between deposit and rent. Real land price of a bank area is calculated on net profit per m2 divided by rate of interest. In case of department store and retail shop He calculated gross profit on sum of sales. 20% of them are considered gross profit. 2% of sales are considered net profit. Real land price of retail shop deparetment store areas are counted in the same way. From the comparison between the real land price and the nominal one, the following can be said. First He obtained value added data of the factory, then calculated net profit after cost analysis. Real land price can be obtained from net profit per m2 divided by interest rate. From the land price curve of manufacturing area the following can be seen.
In order to make land use plan, in city and rural plan, which is in harmony with planning region, land evaluation map is necessary. However, research on land evaluation has just been started. In this situation, it is the purpose of this paper to propose a method of land evaluation in the second type of land use plan. Before going into the main argument, the propositions concerning to area evaluation, which include the meaning of evaluation, evaluation capacity of human beings and measures of impartiality, are discussed. Then the measure of evaluation for area evaluation is adopted from the basis of capacity of human beings. The main purpose of this paper lies in the introduction of “area evaluation function”, which means the relation between the above mentioned evaluation measure by human beings and elements of each area. The function is expressed as follows, in the form of quantification theory, here, In a town, Shinasahi-cho, Siga-prefecture, the evaluation coefficients are determined from the sample areas and the weights of elements for evaluation are discussed. Then the estimated values of areas from the determined evaluation function are calculated and mapped in mesh.