This paper is a study on problems of planning and policy making for regional development in recent Japan. Japanese government showed that the programes for comprehensive regional development plan since 1962. The first plan was operated from 1962, the second plan was 1969 and the thrid plan was 1978. We tried to some comments for these plans on this paper. And after this comments we are propose to strategic factores for new comprehensive regional development plan in Japan. 1) maintain to convenience on mobilities between regiones. 2) making infomation channeles and built up to fanction on city. 3) joint on international relations. 4) making new financial channeles. and, anyway, developping regiones are insufficiency on infruststructure for economic and social activities and to emphasize is that vigor is the only source of growth.
The current periods of low economic growth requires that local governments in Japan adopt a new financial management system. This paper deals with such a system which has been constructed from the existing methods in the management of local finance. The function of the system is demonstrated by a computer model of local finance. The balance section of the model is organized on the basis of an institutional fund. The fund, whichis called an ‘adjustment fund’, normalizes the balance by drawing out reserves when it declines toward a deficit. THE NEW FINANCE MODEL is depicted in Figure 1. Using this model, we will be able to experiment with the financial managment of local governments. Also, we can recommend practical applications of a number of proposition in order to improve local finance.
A phenomenon arises at a point on a plane with some effects from the points around that point. Conversely it affects the phenomena around it. In this paper, I consider the land use pattern in the urbanized areas as that phenomenon with spatial interactions. We have various land use patterns in the urbanized area in Japen, e.g.: the residential area located among the industrial area: Conversely industrial areas exist in residential areas, and so on. This mix of land use in the urbanized area even brings about some important social problems. Now it is necessary, I think, to represent the extent of the land use mix in the urbanized area by objective criteria of the indices. The purpose of this paper is to apply lyer's methode (K. Iyer, 1949) to the land use pattern, to point out the problems regarding the sensitivity of that method and, finally, to build “spatial relation models”.
This paper considers how to specify the model for interregional commodity flows. We first review so many varied types of model in this field, and then point out the most important topics for future research. From a methodological point of view, the models for interregional commodity flows can be classified into the following three categories: i) Classical approach, ii) Information-theoretic approach, iii) Behavior-theoretic approach. We scrutinize each of them in turn, putting an emphasis on the mutual relationships among different models. Next, on the basis of our classification, we raise the following three topics for future reseach: i) How to specify the regional breakdown and appropriate economic distances? ii) How to resolve the aggregation problem so as to determine an optimal level? iii) How to carry out the hypothesis-testing by using a bunch of high quality data? Then, a brief outline of the representative models for interregional commodity flows is restated at the end.
In this paper, on the bases of the indirect utility function and the expenditure function, we presented the general definitions of the compensating and equivalent variations which are the correct monetary measures of a welfare change for an individual, taking into account not only private goods but also public goods as the environmental services. Then, we showed that the concept of social cost by the reduction of the environmental service was properly defined with the compensating variation, which has not been rigorously considered from a point of measurement. And, we showed that this social cost would be measured with the monetary value of the environmental pollution which was defined as the compensated demand price of the environmental service, if the change in the environmental service did not effect on the market prices of private goods.
In this paper, the growth process of 22 cities in Kyushu region through the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa era is discussed. The main purpose is to analyze the situation in which a city with its functions, affected by many other cities forming the region, could realize its substantial growth. To sum up, in Kyshu region, some historical central place cities have grown steadily since the Meiji era and selected ones, Fukuoka for example, showed accelerated growth in recent 20 years. Meanwhile, other central place cities realized relatively low growth because of the nearby larger central place cities which expanded the area of its influence gradually. Another group of newlyrisen cities (so called Shinko-toshi) grew rapidly through industrial revolution in Japan with its profitable location and resonrce endowment compared with other regions. But in post war period, especially since 1950s, these newly-risen cities reduced their growth rate and many of them declined substantially, losing merit so far as the changed national industrial structure concerned.
We are studying the thermodynamic behaviors of social systems. For finding thermodynamic variables which would exist in social systems, we analyzed Japanese regional societies by the principal component analysis. The methods and results of the analysis are presented. The data used are cross-sectional and of time series from 558 cities. We could extract 5 factors through cross-sectional analysis and that of time series. These factors are considered to be important to explain the behaviors of the society. The properties of the factors are discussed from several viewpoints.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the environmental spirit and letter of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, to clarify the relationships between the NEPA and the U. S. Department of Transportation acting as the Lead Federal Agency of the circulation of WMATA's Reports, to appraise the Metro's EIS as an illustrative application of NEPA to the actual transportation system, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit System, along with the environmental procedures and processes following the format of the DOT, in full compliance with the guidelines for the content of EIS issued by the DOT, and to review the environmental considerations in the areawide transit system planning coordinated with the regional and local planning. Information used and the estimated environmental impacts identified are quoted from or refered to the documents of the NEPA, the WMATA and their consultants unless otherwise indicated.
Land price is extremely high in Japan. When the national aggregate land price is assumed to be equivalent to G years of GNP, the G value for Japan is 2.3. Whereas it is 0.7 for U.S.A. In an attempt to shed light on the significances of the high G value in Japan it was analyzed using two element production functions homogeneous of degree 1. Results obtained are: i) With “saturation type” productions functions, the physical product F (q, n) is expressible in G approximately by the formula where q is national land area, i is interest rate, n is supply of nonland element, pn is the price of nonland element and S is GNP. The formula predicts the product price S/F in Japan to be 20% higher than in US due to space limitations in production alone. ii) Land price can be interpreted as the measure of decreasing returns to n due to space limitations or space shortage. iii) The model shows neatly that public works are equivalent to obtaining new land thus effective in alleviating the space shortage in production. iv) The realization of future city image like the Compact City proposed by Danzig7) will greatly reduce the G value in Japan thus practically solving the space shortage problem.
A survey was undertaken in order to clarify the residents' opinions about the Kasumigaura lakeside environment. The purpose of this sruvey was to determine what problems to be resolved and to gather supporting information for constructing environmental quality indicators. This survey was carried out as part of the current Kasumigaura Project of N. I. E. S., which is a comprehensive research plan directed at inland water area planning. The survey was carried out in May, 1977. The survey area was within a 1km distance from the shore of the Kasumigaura lake. A thousand residents were sampled randomly, and 752 responded to the interviewers who marked their responses in pre-designed questionnaire sheets. The items included in the questionnaire were: (1) an overall evaluation of the residents' living environment; (2) evaluation of the quality of the shore and the water of the lake as components of the living environment; (3) opinions about polluters of the lake water; and (4) significance of prefectural policy in improving the water quality among various social programs. The results of the survey were as follows. First, a higher satisfaction of the residents to the natural environment than to social was detected. Second, in the view of the residents, the lakeside environment had been polluted, especially for fish and wildlife and swimming. Third, the pollution of the lake water was strongly perceived by the residents (about 90% of the residents answered that it had worsened), and they assumed that the polluters were not only from stock raising and/or factories, but also the household themselves who discharged waste water. Finally, the prefectural policy for purification of the lake water was attached the second highest priority among nine social policies for the area. This study concluded that the residents recognized that the policy for the purification of the water was very important for the improvement of their living environment.
The purpose of this paper is to find an optimal regional development process under development speed constraints with special emphasis on regional government's surplus revenue. Although there have been done many works of dynamic spatial allocation of investment, little attention has been given to the feasibility of the development path itself. This study, first, formulates a regional economic-finance model with a freely allocative budget of a regional government and the feasibility set of development speeds arising from the government investment. Secondly the paper explores an optimal development process under speed constraints of a two-facilities one-region case with linear production and welfare functions. The study shows that the optimal path is a balanced growth of two facilities with a constant ratio independent of weight of the welfare function. Thirdly an optimal timing of transportation investment in a two-region case is discussed with actual data.
The castle towns in early modern ages were the typical models of Japanese cities in Japan. These historic spots still exist as the hearts of cities and they have given the indivisuality and character to the cities of today. However, with the remarkable changes in urban environment in recent years, several problems for including the scenery of castle ruins into environmental planning of the city arose along with these changes. In this paper, the subjects of modern cities are discussed in the firxt place. Secondly, the results on the scene analysis of the castle ruins with complex facilities are descrived from the viewpoint of the environmental design.
The term ‘Koiki-ken’ essentially refers to Prefectural Divisions. In this paper, the ‘Koiki-ken’ is considered in relation to the concept of ‘Settled Areas’ (‘Teiju-ken’) which was published in the Third National Comprehensive Plan of Japan in 1977. If the ‘Koiki-ken’ is to be thought of as being equivalent to the concept of a ‘Settled Area’, among the most important considerations for regional policy are the employment opportunities that can be secured in such an area. The ratio of the number of employment opportunities actually realised to the number required was found to be satisfactory. This ratio was seen to bear a correlation to the rate of population increase. Principal Component Analysis and subsequent Cluster Analysis showed that the ‘Koiki-ken’ of the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido regions could be classified into three groups, viz: Backward Area, Intermediate Areas and Advanced Areas. The ‘Koiki-ken’ in which Prefectural Captials are located were found to belong to the Advanced Area grouping. In the ‘Koiki-ken’ which fall into the Backward and Intermediate Area categories, the increase in the rate of population increase is dependent upon the percentage contribution of employment in the Manufacturing Industries to total employment. In contrast, in the Advanced Areas, employment opportunities are secured largely by Commerical Activity and the Service Industries.
It is the current of world history to smooth out earning differentials between advanced districts and underdeveloped regions. For this purpose economic growth is as well needed as the policy of reasonable redistribution of national income. To evade the economic depression our government made efforts to increase public investments and consumption of general national expenditure for some years. But the effect is not yet notable. Recent, general indifference to national big projects for transportation facilities, industrial combinats or powerstation etc. is due to the terror of public nuisance, which may be caused by those industrious facilities. And decrease of consumption may be brought from such pessimistic viewpoint as forecasting slow down economy and decreasing income per capita in future. Moreover fear of war often prevents perfect free trade of key foods and some important natural resources or products. In order to help the world economic crisis belief in eternal peace and resolution of abolishing all war weapons and armaments for ever should be established in the hearts of peoples all over the world. The way to the golden age could be built up only through global promotion of education and elevation of its standard. It should be the key policy hereafter to encourage the investment for education and research facilities during the age of slow growing economy.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problems of the possibility of the regional development of the Kitakami Area that is the underdeveloped area in Japan. We built a regional development planning system model that has two essential models. One is a macroscopic mathematical programming model and another is a microscopic location allocation simulation model. By policy simulation using the model, we got alternative development plans for the Kitakami Area. Moreover, we are going to proceed the culture development problem of that area.