It is the most important to construct the bridge over the Akashi Strait to enhance the industrial structure of the Shikoku Region, which will further tie the Hanshin Metropolitan Region in with the Shikoku Region as Hanshin's vast hinterland in Western Japan, and will improve the circulation of goods and people within that great region. The authors dealt with the future economic plan of the Shikoku Region from the viewpoint of the construction of bridge over the Akashi Strait. Therefore, a so-called Regional Input-Output Model Analysis and an Econometric Model Analysis were introduced to predict the economic structure of the Shikoku Region. In order to calculate the increment of total output in the Shikoku Region to comply with structural change of interregional trade in the Econometric Model Analysis, due to the construction of the Bridge, interregional shipment and importation of goods and services were set as exogenous variables. Through the above procedure, it was made clear that the construction of bridge over the Akashi strait was very efficient to economic development of the Shikoku Region.
Launhardt shows in his article, on the most appropriate determination of the industrial plant, the method of determining the sphere of possible locations as the consumption places vary. In this way he at the same time distinguishes the forms of market which the various locations rule, i.e. those of monopoly, monopolistic competition and perfect competition. Launhardt goes deeper into the problem of market area in his book on the mathematical foundation of the national economy. According to his theory the boundary of market area is determined when the utility of money estimated by the consumers in the market area in question diminishes till it reaches a certain grade. In this way he tries to introduce into his theory the distance preference on the part of consumers, which brings about the local monopoly of the producer in respect to the market area.
This article gives brief account of the background and problems of the “National Comprehensive Development Plan” which was officially adopted by the Government in October 1962. The preparation of such a plan was already stipulated in the Comprehensive Land Development Act enacted in May 1950, but it took more than ten years before the finalization of the plan chiefly because of the rapid changes in the fundamental conditions of the Japanese economy. The new Plan is supposed to answer the question of (a) redevelopment of overcongested areas, (b) preparation of new industrial areas and (c) reduction of economic differencials among different parts of the country.
1. Introduction 2. The growth of “regional community” a. “Regional community” view as a new social phenomenon b. Main factors 3. Regional science, It's nature and development a. It's development b. Some characteristics of regional science 1. interdisciplinary 2. practical 4. Participation of sociology to the development of regional science a. Sociological approach to regional community b. Regional community in a total society c. Importanc e of social plannings, physical and economic 5. Some conclusions
It is very interesting to note that theories and policies concering regional economy could be arranged in pairs and contrasted with each other even in dealing with the same and similar problems. Theories of regional economic growth, for example, could be classified into two categories: one may be called the sector theory, represented typically by the Colin Clark type of theory with regard to the structural change of an economy, which is more fitted to analyze internal growth sequences rather than to clarify external impetus affecting the development of a given region; the other may be called the export-base theory which emphasizes external relations of a regional economy which is supposed a fatal ground for existence of a region distinguished from the rest, and puts particular importance on export activities to have a multiplier effect. We can see a contrast between two theories: the former regards service activities as a “lead” item in the process of overall growth, while the latter put aside it and makes the growth owe primarily the export activities. In the field of regional policy, there could be recognized two standpoints in contrast: one is a viewpoint of production and the other a viewpoint of distribution or social welfare. In Japan at present, boosting economic growth is not always compatible with lessening regional differentials between economic level. In discussing such orthodox doctrines as the Lerner-Hickian condition of optimum welfare state (marginal rate of transformation being equal to marginal rate of substitution) policy for production and policy for better distribution of the outcome of production should be treated separately, lest unfruitful confusions arise in appraising achievements. We really hope to have a nicer device for attaining efficient production in company with socially desirable distribution of products. It may be partial to pass without mentioning many other examples which remain untouched in this paper.
Attempting econometric research on the Regional Development planning for the Hanshin (Osaka-Kobe) Metropolitan Region (in 1962), we constructed a empirical model of the regional economy of the Hanshin Metropolitan Region. In this paper, we try to grasp quantitatively structural properties of the regional economy by means of the regional impact multipliers formulated in the above model and some of dynamic characteristics by a method of simulation analysis. Variables and their notations in our model are given as follows. (1) Endogeneous variables (14 in all) (unit: million yen in terms of 1955 price.) (Subscript t for each variable means “at the tth year”.) Yt=net regional income in terms of production in the Hanshin Region. (The word “the Hanshin” will be dropped for brevity below. Therefore, “the regional” data or variable represents the data or variable of the “Hanshin region”.) Ct=regional consumption. IEQt=regional net investment for producer's durable or equipment. IDWt=regional net investment for dwellings. Jt=regional inventory investment. Xt=regional foreign exports. Et=regional foreign imports. Tt=net balance of the trade between the Hanshin and the other regions. Dt=regional depreciation. Gt=regional government expenditure (local and central). Rt=regional corporate income. Ot=total regional gross output in manufacturing industry. St=regional shipment by the manufacturing industry. Ft=indirect tax collexted in the region. (2) Pre-determined variables (3 in all) St-1, Ct-1, Ot-1. (3) Exogeneous varibables (3 in all) GNt=national government expenditure. IDWNt=investment for dwellings in the nation. IEQNt=net investment for producer's durables or equipment in the nation.
To begin with, we reconsidered how to treat the market factor of location in classicists: Von Thünen and Alfred Weber. Then, we reviewed the opinion of S. R. Dennison who had criticized Weber's theory of location, and we pointed out and considered some of the problems which had not been made clear by him. The first of these is the problem on statistical evidence on the raising in importance of market factor of location, and it includes conceptual and technical difficulties. The second is the identification of a prime factor of location between transport factor and market factor. We introduce the M. L. Greenhut's opinion and try to evaluate its usefulness for avoiding danger of some confusions in case of locational survey. The last is the relation between market size and cumulative development of economy, and we suggest that central place theory, a viewpoint of stages of economic development, and studies on regional multiplier and on basic-nonbasic ratio are able to help us to analyse this problem.