Owing to rapid expansion of the Japanese economy, the object of public investment is now changing from that of ‘stagnation’ economics to ‘ bottle-neck’. The relative advantage of unbalanced growth of private investment to public has been gradually diminished and inefficiency due to the unbalanced growth has manifested itself and become the fetter to the economic growth in private sector. Therefore the determination of amount of investment (need) in public sector which has been and is less developed, and the optimum investment share to the private (consistency) are the primal target of economic policy. Here we are concerned with the transport investment, above all, road investment, and try to estimate empirically the requisite amount of investment corresponding to national economic activity level, and its consistency among other several public investment, considering the actural data in the past.
The assignment procedure of the origin and destination traffic for a given highway system is considered to be very important and one of the most trouble works. It has been a fundamental problem in the highway planning to improve the principle of assignment and the ability of computer. In this paper, the technique of assignment based on the principle of equivalence with respect to travel time is considered. It is assumed that the highway system consists of many triangular elements and the travel time of each vehicle enlarges as the traffic volume increases. It has been possible to determine the distributed traffic considering the variation of travel time subjected to traffic volume.
Object: Optimal Location of Industries through minimization of production and transportation costs subject to the restrictions (1) regional final demands must be met, (2) locational factors are limited. MODEL 1: (1) Assumptions 1: Stability of input-output ratios in region. 2: Divisibility of production plants. 3: Non-existence of Economy of Scale. 4: Non transferability of locational factors. (land water etc.) (2) Notations (3) Objective Function and Ristrictions It is difficult to solve this model in the point of data-collection (especially average production cost in a region) and computation. Moreover it may lead us to a trivial solution because of the exclusion of indivisibility of industrial plants.
In this paper the problem of intra- and interregional trade pattern in Japan was discussed macro-economically. The model of optimal scheme by Leon N. Moses1) was used and the result of calculation was compared with the actual pattern of interregional trade. The calculation was based on the data in 1959 which were the newest for us at the time period of this study.
The paper presents five kinds of numerical tables which are the estimated results of the parameters for the treatment of transportation sector in regional input-output analysis, as was proposed in the author's paper presented at the Far Eastern Conference in Tokyo, 1963. The paper is available as Discussion Paper No.36, The Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University, May 1964. Table 1 and 2 show the distances between regions by road and railroad. Table 3 and 4 show the freight rate tonage by trucks and railways (only for the first class among 24 classes), Table 5 indicates the conversion of commodity units to tonnage, the class of freight rate for each type of commodities, and the freight rate for trucks.
Using the Japanese prefectural data for 1952, I found statistically the relations which can be generally shown by the equations (1)-(4) (P, R, W, and T: regional density of population, of retailers, of wholesalers, and of traders (retailers and wholesalelers), greek letters: parameters) (Fig. 1-4). And I discussed tentatively the reason why the relations are found, by the hypothesis shown by the equations (9), (14)-(16), (22), (24), (25) and (12) (P*, R* W*, and T* regional population, the regional population of retailers, of wholesalers, and of traders, A: the area of a region, Y: per capita income, G, C, GW, and CW: the quantity of the commodity bought by one consumer from retailers, sold by one retailer to consumers, bought by one retailer from wholesalers, and sold by one wholesaler to retailers, the other characters), and the fact that α_??_η. Based on the values of the parameters of the equations (5)-(8), we can conclude that, in Japan, in the region where P or R is large, the ratio R/P, W/P, and T/P, or W/R are high. This tendency would be due to the regional difference of per capita income in Japan (see the equation (vii) in the note .).
In sociology, concept of community was significant in its interpretation as one of the basic symbol of human group. However, this explains only narrow human relations in an existing limited spatial area such as city or village, but this kind of community concept can not always be adapted to the modern community being emerged by development of mass transportation and mass communication. To this reality, l should like to explain newly emerging community-that 1 call regional society. This is derived from the sociological viewpoint of which development of community is resulted from development and differentiation of life structure in a community life. Ist, out of residential function, function of working place (productive function) is separated, 2nd, out of residential function, recreational function is separted (consuming function). 3rd, in a function of working place, top management and business management are differentiated and integrated. 4th, growth of physical transportation, which makes possible integration of life functions and 5th, consensual integration by development of mass communication which makes possible spatial separation of life structure. when we combine the above mentioned five principles, we come to conclusion that region is not necessarily depicted in a physically continuous form of human life. And various kind of functions derived from residential functions concentrate on a limited spot as central managing area. This strategic area again extends controlling power over wide region. I pointed that this is the space of managing center on which regional society can be emerged.