The New National Comprehensive Development Plan announced by Economic Plan Agency in 1969, pointed the necessity of Regional Administration of Inter-Prefectural problems. The social and economic change of Tokyo Metropolitan Region has brought the needs of various inter-prefectural exchanges and cooperations which would include Bed-Town, Commutation and Housing Construction Circumstances, and therefore, the present prefectural system has become too narrow for effective area development planning which should cover at least 50Km diameter areas. This should be the reason why Regionalism has been insisted by various scholars. I pointed some urgent needs of regional basis administration, especially related with Water Supply, Tokyo Bay Port Administration and Housing of course, which are only some typical cases of Regional Administration. My exprolation was made, compared with Nagoya Port Co-operative, New York Port Authority, and Water Resources Development Corporation and Water Supply Bureau of Tokyo Metropolitan Government. I do hope to promote this kind of functional regionalism for effective regional planning as a first step of regional government.
(l) As for such construction section in underdeveloped area as Sendai-Ichinoseki Section, quite different results were obtained according to the preconditions whether a set of long time-horizon & low discount rate will be adopted as exogenous variables, or a set of short time horizon & high discount rate will be. Former case is advantageous to the route in congested urban area, and latter in hilly area. (2) Circumferential section in metropolitan area is profitable to the private investment not to the public (under some preconditions). (3) For Towada-Aomori Section, we obtained the result that it is sufficient to accommodate ordinary road of 2 lane (not expressway) even in a considerably later period, and moreover it is not affected by the option which should be adopted, long time-horizon & low discount rate or short & high. In case of being free from political constraint of improving regional income disparity, such a drastic solution is obtained. In addition to parametric analysis of optimum solutions mentioned above, we get imputed prices to constraints which will give a clue to the investment planning hereafter. Finally, in our empirical study, stress will be put on the general derivation of investment criteria, and is, so-called, a pilot study in which its necessary components, i.e., economic effects are calculated in a conventional method (World Bank type).
We can make a varietal model of the quantity of the goods transported from the ith region to the jth region written by the equation: being based on the Isard's gravity model1) which is originally constructed for the number of trips and is expressed by the equation: where Wi., W.j and W.. are _??_ Wij, _??_ Wij, and _??_ Wij respectively (n is the total number of regions) Dij is the distance from the ith region to the jth region, k and α are parameters, and Kij and αij are the particular parameters for Wij. If we multiply the right hand side of the equation (1) by the values Pi/Pi, Pj/Pj, and P/P and we assume the values Wi/Pi, W.j/Pj, and W../P are th_??_ functions of yi, yj, and y, we can obtain the following model: where Pi and Pj are the populations of the ith and jth region, P is the population of all the regions observed, yi and yj are the per capita output of the ith and jth region and y is the per capita output of all the regions observed. On the other hand, the relation expressed by the equations: are found from some of the data of Japan for the years 1962-1964.2) Being based upon the relations, the model shown by the equation (5) is constructed. whereKij is kijki.k.j/k... In this model, Wij is explained by regional economic activities and populations, and the distance between regions. When we have sufficient data of time series, we can get the values of the parameters in the equation (5) by the method of least squares, using the form: But, unfortunately, the values of the parameters can not be found from the data of Japan for the years 1962-1964, because the size of the data is so small that we can not calculate the values of the parameters. However, if we assume that the values of the parameters Kij, βi., β.j, and αij are K, β, β′, and α for each i and j respectively, we can get the following model: where β″ is β.. . And we would be able to get the values of the parameters of the model by the data for the 3 years, because from the OD tables for the 3 years we can obtain many actual values of Wij. Really, the model was tentatively applied to the data of Japan for the years 1962-1964. But, the model was not successfully applied to the data. The model shown by the equation (1) was successfully applied to the data. Incidentally, W. Leontief and A. Strout3) have tried to extract the effects of the ith and the jth region on the Wij by two kinds of parameters. If the model expressed by the equation (6) is successfully applied to the data, we would be able to extract the effects of the ith and the jth region by the parameters βi. and β.j, and the particular characters of the connection between the ith and the jth region by the parameters Kij and αij.
Since we already have a considerable and growing volume of literature on the wage adjustment mechanism in Japan, it is natural to wonder why I am adding one more to the list. Most of the econometric studies have been essentially aggregative in character, relating to wage adjustment for the economy as a whole. No existing model has as its purpose the quantification of regional differences in wage adjustment. In this paper the major purpose is to be able to answer questions which are topical and important in current economic-policy-making, by adding together time series data over nine regions. The model presented here will give the quantitative relationships between wage inflation and labor demand, and the quantitative effect of wage adjustment spilling over from high-employment region to low employment region.
Completion of a trunk-line network of transportation will naturally bring changes in comparative locational advantages and have impacts on economic structure of regions. The present paper attempts to analize these effects quantitatively and to present some simulations. First, we, assuming the standpoint of national economy, built an econometric model for estimation of the trade co-efficients and tried to clarify the effects of the interregional trade structure. Then, we used the regional input-output tables to see its end-effects on various industrial sectors, because changes in final demand of the region and of the total economy induces the expansion of outputs through the interregional trade structure and also through the input-output structure of industrial sectors. Finally, we estimated final demand without the new transportation network, and we compared the results. The outline of the apparatus of our analysis is as follows:
1. Network simulation method as applied to traffic assignment to road-network and to search for optimum road network and its optimum pricing a. Procedure for traffic assignment to road-network which includes toll-motorways A network simulation method for the subject purpose is presented. The method builds in its system the congestion phenomena and also the different monetary evaluation of time saving by different people. Congestion as measured in terms of “traffic volume-road-capacity-speed” relationship and the time evaluation as expressed in terms of percentage distribution of different monetary evaluation are quantified based on empirical data. b. Search for optimum road network and its optimum pricing Traffic assignment is made to several proposed alternative with different alternative toll rates by the method mentioned above. These alternative proposals are then compared with each other on the basis of the total trip costs incurred as expressed in terms of time cost and vehicle operating cost and the total cost of roading (construction and maintenance) over a certain time span. The one which costs least on the basis states as above is considered for adoption as the optimum road network and optimum toll rates. Toll rates which will accrue maximum toll revenue to road authority can also be determined by the use of this traffic assignment and cost computation procedure. 2. Road investment criteria and problem of who should bear the cost The problem of adequacy of the current and contemplative size of total road investment of Japan and adequacy of its allocation among different types and standards of roads, among regions and over time are critically analized. The adequacy must not only be considered in terms of cost-benefit or cost-efficiency angle but also in terms of who should bear the cost and to what extent, this latter angle involving such problems as cross subsidization among regions, among different types and standards of roads, subsidization from outside source, equal footing with other competing transportation modes, and marginal cost pricing versus cost compensating principle. These problems are briefly discussed and some suggestions are presented about Japanese roading policy.